Monday, December 30, 2019

Is Holden Lacks The Maternal Affection That He So...

Psychoanalysis would suggest that Holden lacks the maternal affection that he so desperately desires and fails to receive. Upon reviewing Holden’s behavior it appears as if he is a victim to various disorders such as Bipolar and PTSD disorder. explains the differences between emotional and psychological trauma and also the possible effects in their article, â€Å"Emotional and Psychological Trauma: Causes and Effects, Symptoms and Treatment. One key factor in that causes traumatic stress is a product of, â€Å"traumatic stress in childhood that influences the brain is caused by a poor or inadequate relationship with a primary caretaker.† It is coherent that Holden’s world of pain is a result of the absence of both his mother†¦show more content†¦I started putting on my damn pants in the dark. I could hardly get them on I was so damn nervous(Salinger 192). This not only ties into his emotions but mostly towards his depression, which can lead to anxiety about the possibility of being abused by others, even if that is not the intention of the attacker. According to their article, What is Psychosis? written by Elea Carey, implies that those who experience symptoms can have their social relationships strained and experience high levels of anxiety, When their mood is depressed, the individual may have psychotic symptoms that make them feel angry, sad, or frightened. These symptoms include thinking someone is trying to harm them. Holden has a purpose in life that he wants to complete and follow through with, primarily because of his brother Allie s death, and does not any other kids to lose their innocence. The elaborates on what effects a person that suffers from the Bipolar disorder can experience in Bipolar disorder written by their clinic staff, When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. In Holden s mind, there is nothin g else to live for regarding his life, other than saving the children because his brother s death sucked all the life out of him and left him lifeless with direction. He strives to be the guardian of innocence, to prevent kids

Sunday, December 22, 2019

Business Plan for a Night Club - 5490 Words

Prepared By: Anthony DiGiacomo Omar Lindo Nicole Terry Rachel Buckley Chris Tribble Jeff Owens Table of Contents Topic Page # #61623; Executive Summary 4 #61623; Mission Statement 8 #61623; Description of the Venue 10 Company Summary 11 Start-up Summary 12 Business Description 15 #61623; Market Analysis 16 Market Analysis Summary 17 Market Segmentation 18 Chart 1 Ââ€" Total UCONN Enrollment 19 Demographic Statistics 20 Target Market Segment Strategy 23 Service Business Analysis 26 Main Competitors 27 Strategy and Implementation Strategy 30 #61623; Marketing Plan 32 Marketing Strategy†¦show more content†¦Liquor $1,000 Misc. Supplies $1,000 Ice Machine $4,000 Soft Drink Dispensers $2,000 Coffee Machine $200.00 Microwave $300.00 Administration Systems $9,200 Internet Web Site $5,000 Initial Working Capital $40,000 Total = $292,850.00 Not included in start-up costs - Staff wages - Liquor Tax - Sales Tax - Any additional state or provincial taxes Business Description The emergence of a need for a place to have fun in the Mansfield/Storrs area represents a unique opportunity for a high-energy, dance-theme venue. The Meccas central location, demographics, and lack of direct competition are major advantages to this project. The proposed venue will provide a local solution to the lack of social atmosphere. It will be a live entertainment venue that will be geared primarily toward the 18-35 age group in the Greater Hartford area. The Mecca will specialize in high-energy themes, and will offer beer, wine and an array of liquors and mixed drinks. In addition, the venue will sell non-alcoholic beverages such asShow MoreRelated Sample Nigthclub Business Plan Essay874 Words   |  4 Pages Sample Nightclub Business Plan ( BackgroundSummary The generation of today has a lot of focus on leisure and off-time. They are looking for ways to escape their everyday lives and let loose. Whether that is dancing to new age music, having a few cocktails, or dining out with reasonably priced food. A nightclub can provide all these accommodations, and is the perfect venue to open up is done with some thoughtful planning. There are some important elements to consider. Location isRead MoreEssay about Creating a Business Plan1119 Words   |  5 Pagesyou are heading in the future. That is why before you can start a business you need to draw up a detailed business plan. Business plans are considered blueprints. A business plan is what is needed to get your business off the ground and to attract potential investors. A business plan is way to show that you are in the business to make money. Introduce the company and the product/service idea for the new venture. Triple S Night Club is a new company that will offer high quality services to its clientsRead MoreMarketing Pl Blue Note Cafe s Need For Increased Sales1119 Words   |  5 PagesGuerilla Marketing Plan The focus of this marketing plan is Blue Note Cafà ©Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s need for increased sales. The owner Mr. Sammy Winder, contacted me as his marketing consultant to resolve his issue of decreased sells at his restaurant/bar/ jazz club. Mr. Winder expressed that he house the best local musicians, and have competitive prices for awesome drinks and food. When he first opened sales were at a high, however as of late, the sales has declined by approximately half. This has become an alarmingRead MoreMarketing Pl Blue Note Cafe s Need For Increased Sales1114 Words   |  5 PagesThe focus of this marketing plan is Blue Note Cafà ©Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s need for increased sales. The owner Mr. Sammy Winder, contacted me as his marketing consultant to resolve his issue of decreased sales at his restaurant/bar/ jazz club. Mr. Winder expressed that he have the best local musicians, and have competitive prices for awesome drinks and food. When he first opened sales were at a high, however as of late, the sales have declined by approximately half. This has become an alarming situation as the resultRead MoreBusiness Plan1439 Words   |  6 PagesBusiness Plan What is Blueberry Nights? Type: bar and restaurant for young people Category: II. class Service method: plate service Menu type: A’la Carte Opening hours: Sunday to Wednesday 10:00-22:00 Thursday to Saturday 13:00-05:00 No day off Target market: students, tourists and residents Location: Budapest, Margit kà ¶rà ºt Few steps from Margaret Island Easy to reach by tram Seating capacity: 120 (80+40) 1st floor: kitchen area, 80 seated restaurant, bar, armchairsRead MoreThe Human Resource Management Of Training1633 Words   |  7 PagesThis report discusses how the human resource management of training is affecting my workplace at the North Ryde Golf Club. The Club’s background will be surmised and the issue of training and why it needs improving will be addressed, evidence will be given to what areas need improving. Research will be drawn upon from the prescribed text and various other sources including a comparative study to the organisation of McDonald’s which has successful training systems in place. The comparison will allowRead MoreOpening a Nightclub for the Over 21 Crowd1418 Words   |  6 Pagesyears old. This nightclub is of interest to the author because she is very passionate about it and this type of business had always been the author’s dream. This chapter will discuss the relevant literature related to a) Customer service, b) License for restaurants and bars, and c) Types of entertainment. Review of Literature Customer service The author knows that a business will not succeed if the employees do not give the customers a quality customer service. Customers are most likelyRead MoreWhat Makes An Effective Leader? Essay717 Words   |  3 PagesHBR s 10 must reads on leadership. (2011). Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business Review Press. Article 1: What Makes an Effective Leader Central Theme: Article one focuses on the idea that in order to have an efficient or successful environment, whether it be a business, project, or group, a leader must be effective in their way of working and addressing such environment. The first article focuses not only in what a leader needs to do but why those factors characterize an effective leader. An effectiveRead MoreInterpersonal1363 Words   |  6 PagesHunter Davis-Interpersonal Communication Fight Club Fight Club, a 1999 American film, is a brilliantly constructed film of escaping reality and dealing with pain in the famous art form of fighting. Director David Flincher adapted the film from the 1996 novel. Main actors, Brad Pitt as Tyler Durden and Edward Norton as the narrator, act excellently as they deal with their reality by celebrating violence in underground fight clubs. The narrator becomes involved in a relationship triangle betweenRead MoreEssay on Ssi Case Distribution1537 Words   |  7 Pagespopularity of warehouse club stores threatened candy and tobacco jobbers. Small mom-and-pop grocery or convenience stores were able to purchase many products they needed at these warehouse clubs at the same price or less than what the distributors offered. Furthermore, the warehouse clubs provided a one-stop shopping experience so that the grocery stores could purchase a wider range of products at the club store than was sold by any one candy and tobacco distributor. For example, a club store may offer a

Saturday, December 14, 2019

Art and Language Free Essays

The following paper will focus on cognitive science and its application to the modules of language structure with reference to functionalists theory.   The highlighting factors of the paper will delve into how language is processed through a frame of reference and developed in regards to cultural as well as empirical modes.   The way in which language is processed by the mind and how cognitive science extrapolates this complex function will be discussed as well as the applying the representational theory of mind. We will write a custom essay sample on Art and Language or any similar topic only for you Order Now Language structures community.   It is a response to the emotions, the events, and the culture surrounding individuals and is tied into the concepts of cognitive science because it is a process that has to be translated by the brain to be understood.   Language is an innate expression of emotion, a deep need to convey oneself, to be understood, to find a connection with someone or a group of people: through this desire of communication is found sensory signals. A well-developed individual will use language not only for communication of simple tasks (directions, greetings, or general information), but more intrinsically, for the relaying of emotion and thus, the internal representations are used in order to perceive correctly what is trying to be communicated.   Through language there arises a sense of belonging through the brain’s ability to act and work like a computer the neural networks of the mind give off the impression of vocal integration of a species, and through this is found a preliminary common ground by which an individual may interpret signals and voice to demonstrate camaraderie. There is a common relationship when two people speak the same language and are further bonded through the expression of their thoughts.   A person’s conversations, exterior portrayal of a relationship, and personal injuries lie in Sausseure’s bilateral definition of langue and not parole. †¦Sausseure’s differentiation between langue and parole†¦ Langue is the formal grammatical system of language†¦Parole is actual speech, the way that speakers use language to express themselves. (455, Ritzer) It is correct to infer that when tourists are abroad, they have a grasp of langue but little idea of how to use parole effectively.   This differentiation between grammar and expression is the key component in the separation of tourist from native.   Sausseure’s system of language gives a view of exile, which, when deliberated with langue and parole, is defined as being in a state of homelessness purely by being without language.   Without the sense of intrinsic communication which bonds people, and which allows them to have a connection with the community around them, that innate expression or parole is lost and an exile is born. Without a relationship to the language being spoken, there can be no meaning behind the words, no emotion.   In the Representational Theory of Mind, the tie that binds is considered to be that of language and how language is processed and considered.   Through mental states, thoughts, beliefs, and desires as much as impressions and images, language is the tool used to demonstrate the importance of each point.   Language and RTM has at their base intentionality.   Sensory experience is denoted through language and expressed with that language to another person.   The sensory experience can be related to another person only through dialogue. Langue, then, can be viewed as a system of signs – a structure- and the meaning of each sign is produced by the relationship among signs within the system.   Especially important here are relations of difference, including binary oppositions†¦Meanings, the mind, and ultimately the social world are shaped by the structure of language.   Thus, instead of an existential world of people shaping their surroundings, we have here a world in which people as well as other aspects of the social world, are being shaped by the structure of language. (455, Ritzer) When tourists go on vacation, they usually end up spending their time with others from their own country in order to feel secure in unusual surroundings and to feel more at home.   With this in mind, tourists do not succumb to the ideas of culture shock, for they are forever surrounded with their own culture; if they were not, then the desperation of being in exile of language would overcome any sense of excitement in a new place. In Hoffman’s essay The New Nomads in Letters of Transit; †¦exile, and the pain of radical change, do not necessarily lead to a more radical personality structure or greater openness to the world.   On the contrary, upheaval and dislocation can sometimes produce some rather more conservative impulses of self-defense and self preservation. (54) In Freud’s New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis translated by W. J. H. Sprott, he states: The danger of mental helplessness corresponds to the stage of early immaturity of the ego; the danger of loss of object or of love corresponds to the dependence of the early years of childhood; the danger of castration to the phallic phase; and finally, fear of the super-ego, which occupies a special position, to the period of latency.   As development proceeds the old conditions for anxiety should vanish, since the danger-situations, which correspond to them, have lost their force owing to the strengthening of the ego.   But this only happens to a very incomplete degree. A great many people cannot overcome the fear of loss of love; they never become independent enough of the love of other people and continue their infantile behavior in this respect†¦There is no doubt that persons whom we call neurotic remain infantile in their attitude towards danger, and have not grown out of antiquated conditions of anxiety. (122,123) And as Ritzer states, A thinking, self-conscious individual is†¦logically impossible in Mead’s theory without a prior social group.   The social group comes first, and it leads to the development of self-conscious mental states. (207, Ritzer) In such a society, language becomes not a way of telling, but a hindrance, a barrier of self and society.   With the reflection of society, an individual receives feedback of their character, or reflections of who they are.   In Marx’s essay The German Ideology in Kaplan and Anderson’s Criticism, he states, Consciousness is, therefore, from the very beginning a social product, and remains so as long as men exist at all †¦ man’s consciousness of the necessity of associating with the individuals around him is the beginning of the consciousness that he is living in society at all. (317-318) Language then is an avenue by which RTM may be understood to be a symbolic representation of thought.   RTM then functions on a system of building blocks, because language is not implicit but empirical. Work Cited Hoffman, Eva. (1989).   The New Nomads.   In A. Aciman (Ed).   Letters of Transit (pp. 35-63).   New York:   The New Press. Marx, Karl.   (1846).   The German Ideology.   In C. Kaplan and W.D. Anderson (Eds.). Criticism Major Statements (pp. 310-318).   Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s. Ritzer, George.   (2000).   Modern Sociological Theory.   Boston:   McGraw-Hill Co., Inc. Sigmund, Freud. (1933).   New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (W.J.H. Sprott, Trans.).   New York: W.W. Norton Company, INC.          How to cite Art and Language, Essay examples

Friday, December 6, 2019

Business Economics for Independent Bureaucracy- MyAssignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about theBusiness Economics for Independent Bureaucracy. Answer: Australia has a free market economy. It has been showing impressive economic growth in the past 25 years. The country has abundant natural resources as well as efficient governmental system, independent bureaucracy, well developed legal system, all of which led to a strong entrepreneurial development in the economy. The GDP of Australia was 1.34 trillion USD or AUD 1.62 trillion in 2015 (World Bank 2017). (Source: World Bank 2017) According to the data of World Bank, the GDP of Australia has shown growth since 2008, reaching highest at $1563.9 billion. The Australian GDP represents 2.16% of the world economy. It grew 1.1% in the last quarter of 2016. The Australian economy is showing a trend of growth recently. The economy has 2.4% annual growth, which is more than predicted 2% growth. The GDP although fell to 1.34 trillion USD in 2015, it witnessed a little fall in the economic performance in 2015 from the previous years. However, the economy of the nation bounced back to healthy growth in Q4 of 2016, due to a rise in the corporate profits because of rising prices of the commodities, a rise in exports and high level of household spending. Australia is on the way of making a record of 25 years of consecutive growth (Smith 2017). The forecast of growth says in 2017, it would grow 2.5% in 2016-17 and would pick up the growth of 3% in 2017-18 due to relaxation of detraction from declining mining investment. The country is diversifying its investment from mining to other growth areas ( 2017) The economy of a nation is always unpredictable. There can be sudden ups and downs. There are risks in forecasting, as the economy might not follow the forecast. Recent political developments of a nation, inflation and unemployment levels create risks for forecasting. The cross border integration, migration crisis, other countries economic and political policies, all affect the economic condition of a nation, and that can surpass the economic performance growth forecasts positively or negatively (IMF 2017). Fiscal and monetary policies are two most important tools of a government. These help to stimulate the economy or slowing it down as per the requirement. To improve the economic performance, the government uses the expansionary fiscal policy, by decreasing taxes, and financing budget deficit. When it decreases the tax amount, the producers would produce more, and households have more disposable income. Hence, consumption spending increases in the economy and leads to a rise in aggregate demand and consequently economic performance improves. On the other hand, expansionary monetary policy contributes in improving the economic performance of a country. It targets the interest rate and money supply in the economy. When the economic performance is low, government lowers the interest rate. Borrowing becomes cheaper and producers borrow more money to increase production. This way economic performance of the nation improves (Baker, Bloom and Davis 2016). References: Baker, S.R., Bloom, N. and Davis, S.J., 2016. Measuring economic policy uncertainty.The Quarterly Journal of Economics,131(4), pp.1593-1636. IMF, 2017. IMF World Economic Outlook (WEO) Update, January 2017: A Shifting Global Economic Landscape. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 May 2017]. Smith, J., 2017. Australia bounces back to robust GDP growth. Financial Times. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 May 2017]., 2017. Economic outlook | The Treasury. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 May 2017]. World Bank, 2017. GDP (current US$) | Data. [online] Available at: [Accessed 20 May 2017].

Friday, November 29, 2019

Hospitality Service in Asia

Despite global economic recessions and financial downfalls, hospitality industry continues to spread its magical effects in different corners of Asian countries with commendable services and launches of enchanting infrastructures of hotels and vacations spots (Abu Khalifeh and Som, 2012).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Hospitality Service in Asia specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Recently, an event has taken place in Hong Kong, in which a group of W hotels have launched their most innovative and remarkable design concepts of residences for tourist across the globe. Modern and new style luxury, with sharp and beautiful cut edged architectural and interior designs have evidenced that professionals are working creatively to make improvement in hospitality services in Asia (Etravel Blackboard, 2012). Another grand even took place in Honk Kong explaining progress of hospitality industry services in the regions for dif ferent clients coming from all over the world. An event of grand opening of Crowne Plaza Hong Kong Kowloon East, Holiday Inn has been celebrated recently. It is first time in the history of Hospitality industry of Asia that, twin-brand projects have been launched, which are expected to bring new era of Hospitality in Hong Kong (4-traders, 2012). Manila serves as a cultural, political, economical, and social community centre for citizens of Philippines and a foremost opportunity destination of the Southeast Asia (Eturbonews). Current announcements from Hilton Hotels and resorts show their strong commitment to grow aggressively in the Asia Pacific region and redevelopment of their hospitality brands across the globe (Eturbonews). Also, their collaboration with world class travelers like International Hotel Group Inc., ensure that Hilton Manila has potential to capitalize their business on the strong national and international demands from travelers looking for high-quality accommodati ons (Eturbonews).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Moreover, it has been observed that Hilton Hotels and Resorts is one of the most out-class and leading brands of Philippines and it marks remarkable milestone for their frequent progress in this locality of Asian region (Eturbonews). Their brand portfolio has recently spanned more than seventy-five states and they proudly announced to bring authentic hospitality to tourist and residence in this region of this region of Philippines (Eturbonews). Additionally, it should be noted that this prediction has been proven correct by the Singaporean hospitality services, as they have gained reputation in the market with record breaking performance in 2012, specifically tourism and restaurant services made remarkable achievements this year (Hospitality Net). Therefore, from the above discussion, it should be noted that the hospitality s ervices in the Asian regions are progressing day by day with advancements in the communication modes and most specifically due to globalization. Current events and occasions related to the success and celebrations of different Asian hospitality organizations evidenced that the Asian countries are not behind in updating and improving their hospitality services at the global level. Works Cited 4-traders. â€Å"Sun Hung Kai Properties Limited : SHKP celebrates grand openings of Crowne Plaza Hong Kong Kowloon East, Holiday Inn Express Hong Kong Kowloon East and Vega Suites.â€Å".  2012. Web. Abu Khalifeh, A and A. Som. â€Å"Service Quality Management in Hotel Industry: A Conceptual Framework for Food and Beverage Departments.† International Journal of Business and Management 7.14 (2012): 135-141. Print.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Hospitality Service in Asia specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Etravel Blackboard. â€Å"W Hotels Worldwide Unveils Innovative, Iconic Design Along Ancient Pearl River With W Guangzhou Hotel Residences.† 2012. Web. Eturbonews. â€Å"Hilton Hotels Resorts expands in Philippines.† 2012. Web. Hospitality Net. â€Å"Record-Breaking Performance by Singapore Hotels.† 2012. Web. This essay on Hospitality Service in Asia was written and submitted by user Molecule Man to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, November 25, 2019

Essay about Water and Habitable Planet Unit

Essay about Water and Habitable Planet Unit Essay about Water and Habitable Planet Unit A.P. Environmental Science Syllabus 2009-2010 General scope and sequence for the course |Unit |Topic |Relevant Text Chapters | |1 |Sound Science, Stewardship and Sustainability |1, 22 | |2 |Ecosystems and Biogeochemical Cycles |2, 3, 4 | |3 |Human Demographics and Wealth Gap |5, 6 | |4 |Biodiversity and Natural Capital |10, 11 | |5 |Water Resources and Water Pollution |7, 17 | |6 |Atmosphere and Global Warming |20 | |7 |Conventional Non-renewable Energy |12, 13 | |8 |Renewable Energy |14, 23 | |9 |Soil, Food and Pest Control |8, 9, 17 | |10 |Hazardous Chemicals and Human Health |14, 19, 22 | |11 |Solid Waste and Atmosphere Pollution |18, 20.5, 21 | AP Environmental Science Course Overview AP Environmental Science is a college level course with the ability to transfer college credits if you pass the AP Exam in May. The goal of AP Environmental Science is to provide students with the scientific principles, concepts, and methodologies required to understand the interrelationships of the natural world, to identify and analyze environmental problems both natural and human-made, to evaluate the relative risks associated with these problems, and to examine alternative solutions for resolving and/or preventing them. Environmental science is interdisciplinary; it embraces a wide variety of topics from different areas of study. The curriculum draws upon various scientific disciplines including: Earth Systems and Resources The Living World Human Population Dynamics (and Policies) Land and Water Use Energy Resources and Consumption Pollution Global Change In addition the course will provide students with the scientific principles, concepts, and methodologies required to understand the interrelationships of the natural world including: Analyzing and interpreting information and experimental data, including mathematical calculations. How to identify and analyze environmental problems, to evaluate the ecological and human health risks associated with these problems, and to critically examine various solutions for resolving or preventing them. A laboratory and/or field investigation component. A minimum of one class period per week will be spent engaged in laboratory and/or field work. The following themes provide the foundation for the AP Environmental Science course: 1. Science is a process. Science is a method of learning more about the world. Science constantly changes the way we understand the world. 2. Energy conversions underlie all ecological processes. Energy cannot be created; it must come from somewhere. As energy flows through systems, at each step more of it becomes unusable. 3. The Earth itself is one interconnected system. Natural systems change over time and space. Biogeochemical systems vary

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Training and Development on Employee Job Performance in Tesco Dissertation

Training and Development on Employee Job Performance in Tesco - Dissertation Example In order to serve a wider market, the company requires flexible, well trained workforce which can identify the needs of its customers. This project looks at the various programs undertaken by the company and aims to provide training and development opportunities for its employees and also managers. The project aims to take into consideration the training provided in Tesco to its employees. The project aim is to identify the needs of training and development in Tesco and whether it has a positive impact on the working condition of the employees in Tesco. For further research, some research questions have been formulated which has helped in the formulation of the literature review. A time frame has been given supported with a Gantt chart showing the plan and approach of the project. A case on Tesco has been considered and a detail analyses on the information collected have been conducted and also supported with a discussion on the training and development sessions at Tesco. Finally a c onclusion has been provided which states that training and development has been an essential part of the company and it is trough the programs that Tesco has been able to reach he stage where it is today and continuous to grow in the future. Contents Executive Summary 2 Project Aims and Objectives 5 Objectives of the study 5 Research Questions 6 Project Plan and Approach 6 Literature Review 8 Training and Development in Organizations 8 ... Aims and Objectives The objectivity of training and development and the learning process has been a leverage with respect to industries and today it has become arching trend of social needs which emphasis that organisation should inculcate learning culture as social responsibility. Training has played a distinct role in the achievement of organisational goal by way of incorporating the interest of the organisation and the employees. The performance of employees depends on various factors but one of the most important factors is training. Training is essential in order to enhance the capabilities of the employees. Training and Development increase the performance of the employee and in return it enhances the performance of the overall organisation. Employee performance depends on factors such as job satisfaction, knowledge and management. Thus it can be inferred that employee performance is important for the organisation and training and development is essential and beneficial for emp loyees to improve their performance (Khan, 2011). Therefore the purpose of the study is to determine the impact of training and development on the employee at Tesco. Objectives of the study The objectives of the study are to: Identify the major purpose of training and development Ascertain the training and development policies in Tesco Explain and outline the training and development practise and processes, outline of the training methods and the process of monitoring and evaluating the plan. Whether training and development have a positive effect on the performance of workers and productivity. Research Questions How did the training and development practice developed in Tesco? What are the training and development practice and policies in Tesco? What are the major purpose of training

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Doesn't matter Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Doesn't matter - Essay Example These characters show that they are born with special powers and abilities. Talking about The Secret Ibis, it comes to understanding that Doodle (the lead character who is physically unstable) was a disappointment to his family. Among all, his brother was more disappointed because he could not play with him the way he expected to run. In the second setting, Simon Birch, one can note that Simon was not able to be one of those kids who were normal. It should also be noted that he was a short heighted person who was not accepted by anyone not even the society he lived in (Hurst). It will not be incorrect to state that if Doodle or Simon were treated well by his brother and Joe then it could have been expected that there were betterment in their lives. The support from family or friends would have helped them to be accepted by the society in general. As a contradiction to this statement, it was marked in the short story that Doodle was not at all accepted by his brother as he was tortured by showing coffin that was bought Doodle (Johnson). Ultimately, Doodle’s brother left him alone when the storm occurred. Doodle lost his life in the storm as he was dependent upon his brother for reaching school. In a similar way, Simon was put to test by his friend who was rather supposed to provide a support to him. Just because of the misunderstanding, he wronged Simon (Hurst). The community has seemingly failed to understand the need of dealing with people who are abnormal but can be gifted in many ways. For instance, Doodle was a mighty heart because he was able to survive when everyone thought he will not. In the same way, Simon was considered as a person who was short and misfit in the society. However, in real terms, he was extremely talented and wise. Nevertheless, despite their gifted personalities, they were not provided with the support and acceptance that they deserved to have (Johnson). Through the above analysis, it comes to understanding that the two

Monday, November 18, 2019

The level of unemployment in United Kindgdom Coursework

The level of unemployment in United Kindgdom - Coursework Example Increased unemployment in a country shows that a country does not use its resources appropriately. It carries momentous social costs in that, unemployed people must habitually depend on benefits for income from other people. Besides, the sense of boredom rejection and failure of being unemployed brings a lot of social consequences to their lives. Recent studies have constantly linked unemployment to deterioration of health and rising suicide and crime rates. The causes of unemployment are diverse and economists differentiate a number of types: structural unemployment is caused by changes in the labor market or the economy. This is the failure of available jobs to fit workforce skills; frictional unemployment is the occurrence of people being amid jobs; cyclical unemployment is caused by the vagaries of cycles in the business; and seasonal jobs are caused by different seasonal jobs e.g. construction and farm work (Bassanini and Duval, 2009). Background The history of UK unemployment i s central to social and economic history of the country. As a result of post war boom, 1950s and some parts of 1960s saw very low rates of unemployment going to as low as three percent. This was far- off much lower compared to other years and this has made a number of hypotheses to be put forward to account for this unique time in the history of labor market. The servicemen who were in the far front had been promised full employment if they won in the Second World War. The government was not prepared to break this pledge. The record quantities of exports and imports went through docks in London when the reconstruction endeavor was in full dangle. The skilled labor was enthusiastically recruited from the countries forming commonwealth to help in building of hospitals, schools and houses in London. Growing prosperity brought a new boldness to young generations in London who was looking to America for models f music and other behaviors. In around 1958, the growing western community of India in Notting Hill was attacked by rampaging youth gangs. This was disaffected infantile delinquents that became a problem to Londoners. The manufacturing companies flourished very much in 1950s especially the ones that were making consumer goods such as radios, televisions and washing machines. The offices in London increased white collar jobs bringing a boom of over 50,000 jobs. By the, the services went up to 51 % of London’s economy while manufacturing accounting for 42 % (UK unemployment, 2011). The office jobs benefited women very much outnumbering men in for the first time ever (Kalachek and Westebbe, 1961). Unemployment in (%) 1950 1.5 1955 1.1 1960 1.6 1965 2.6 1970 4.1 1975 4.5 1980 6.8 1985 6.4 1990 7.1 1995 8.6 2000 5.4 2005 4.9 2009 5.8 2010 8.1 2011 7.9 Source: Kalachek and Westebbe, (1961), Bell D., Blanchflower G. (2008) and Nickel S., Nunziala L. (2005) Technological progress, the achievement of Keynesian economics, steady international trade environment a nd constancy of the Phillip curve (which postulated an affiliation amid high inflation and reduced unemployment) brought a situation of full employment approach. Before this, the preponderance of the women lingered in the category of the people who were economically inactive. The economic prevailing attitude of the detonation years collapsed in late 1960s and early 1970s. The energy crises of 1973 as well as 1979 created stagflation, rising unemployment, and rising inflation. This is something that reckoned impossible using Phillip

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Passive and Active Security Attacks

Passive and Active Security Attacks Ans :- The difference between active and passive attacks in case of active attack involve the updating upon the data means the active attack access the data and then perform alteration upon the data and than data transmit on the network but in case of passive attack the attacker just access the message and the contents of the message without any alteration upon the data means just type attack just involve to read and access the message the content mean just observe the message . The active attack easy to detect but not easy to protect but passive attack difficult to detect easy to prevent Examples of the Active attack Replay Message modification Denial of service Example of the Passive attack Traffic Analysis Q2. List and briefly define categories of security services. Ans :- The various type secure services are :- Authentication Access Control (Authorization) Data Confidentiality Connection Confidentiality Connectionless Confidentiality 4. Data Integrity Connection Integrity with Recovery Connection Integrity without recovery Connectionless integrity Non Repudiation Authentication:- the service of authentication concern with the validate to the user before receiving the data at the receiving end . Means this service provide the way to authenticate the receiving of data after confirming the data coming from the valid user. Access Control :- after authentication the next task is access control means when user request to access the specific data then after perform authentication just next task to check the privileges of user what type of task user can be perform and what type of Resources can be access by the user . user can capable to read the contents of the data and Data Confidentiality:- This service basically refer to provide the confidence the data receive by the receiver not be access and read by any other person during data transmission mean the content of the msg not view by any other person. The type of data confidentiality:- Connection Confidentiality:- Refer to protect the data of all the during from read the content of the data on the connection. Connectionless confidentiality :- Refer to providing the protection from accessing the data of all the user on the Block of data. Data Integrity :- Refer to sure that the data receive by the receiver not be updating during the transmission by any other unrecognized person . mean the data receive by the receiver the actual data that is send by the sender. The following the types of the data integrity: Connection integrity with recovery:-Provide the integrity upon the data during transmission on the connection if there is any updation detect then also recover the message from the alteration and convert into the actual contents. Connection integrity without recovery:- refer to providing the integrity upon the data but not providing the recovery upon the data. Connectionless data integrity:- provide integrity upon the block of data also prevent if any alteration performed but not recover the message. Non repudiation :- refer to provide confidence to the sender the data receive by the receiver is the actual receiver and also provide confidence in the receiver side the data send by the actual sender. Q3. Is there any problem with the one-time pad cipher? Discuss the Problems. Ans :- yes there is problem with one time pad cipher :- Despite Shannons proof of its security, the one-time pad has serious drawbacks in practice: it requires perfectly random one-time pads, which is a non-trivial software requirement secure generation and exchange of the one-time pad material, which must be at least as long as the message. (The security of the one-time pad is only as secure as the security of the one-time pad key-exchange). careful treatment to make sure that it continues to remain secret from any adversary, and is disposed of correctly preventing any reuse in whole or part  Ãƒ ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬ hence one time. See data reminisce for a discussion of difficulties in completely erasing computer media. Q4. Define types of attacks based on what is known to the attacker. Ans:- The following are the typed of on the based on the known to the attacker Cipher Text Only Known Plaintext Chosen Plaintext Chosen cipher text Chosen Text Cipher Text Only :- in this type attack the attacker only know the algorithm used to encrypt the message from plaintext to cipher text .and also known the cipher text and try to be convert the cipher text into the plain text by using the brute forte attack if the key length if too large than this attack to be used no possible then require to be use the crypt analytical way . Known Plaintext :- in this attack attacker know the algorithm , cipher text and also know having idea and some of knowledge of the plain text and upon the bases of the knowing plain text generate the cipher text and contain the key to be use to convert the message from plaintext to cipher text. Chosen Pain text :- in this attack attacker know the algorithm , cipher text and also also having some of the chosen plain text and also having the cipher text of the plain text with the key used to convert the plain text into the cipher text Chosen cipher text :- in this attacker know the algorithm , cipher text and also known the cipher text that to be chosen and also having the plain text and also the key that use to convert the cipher text into the plain text. Chosen Text:- in this type of attack attacker know the algorithm , cipher text , and also some of plain text and also conversion into the cipher text included key and also having the some chosen cipher text pain with also having the plain text of all the message and also having key information. Q5. Write a Program to implement Play fair cipher? Ans :- /* Program to implemencryptiont ppfair cipher */ #includecryption #includecryption void main() { char pp[5][5],encryption[10],decryption[10],data1[10],kk[10],str[26]=abcdecryptionfghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz; int i,j,k=0,m=0,l,flag=0,lencryption,onx,ony,twx,twy; char on,tw,temp1,temp2; clrscr(); /* Reading the plain text */ printf(n encryptionter the data1 : ); gets(data1); /* Reading the kk */ printf(n encryptionter the kkword : ); gets(kk); /* Implemencryptionting the algorithm */ for(i=0;i { j=0; while(j { on=kk[j]; j++; tw=kk[j]; if(on==tw) { while(kk[j+1]!=NULL) { kk[j]=kk[j+1]; j++; } kk[j]=NULL; } } printf(n t modified kk is : ); puts(kk); for(i=0;i { for(j=0;j { if(kk[k]!=NULL) { pp[i][j]=kk[k]; k++; } else { pp[i][j]=NULL; } } } lencryption=strlencryption(kk); l=0; for(i=0;i { for(j=0;j { if(pp[i][j]==NULL) { flag=0; for(k=0;k { if((str[l]==kk[k])l { flag=1; break; } } if(flag==1) { l++; j; } else { pp[i][j]=str[l]; l++; } }} } printf(n); for(i=0;i { for(j=0;j { printf(t %c,pp[i][j]); } printf(n); } for(i=0;i { j=0; while(j { on=data1[j];j++; tw=data1[j]; if(on==tw) { data1[j]=x; temp1=data1[++j]; data1[j]=tw; while(data1[j]!=NULL) { temp2=data1[++j]; data1[j]=temp1; temp1=temp2; } data1[++j]=NULL; } } } printf(n t modifed data1 : ); puts(data1); i=0;j=0; while(data1[i]!=NULL) { on=data1[i]; i++; if(data1[i]!=NULL) { tw=data1[i]; i++; } else { tw=x; } for(k=0;k { for(m=0;m { if(pp[k][m]==on) { onx=k; ony=m; } if(pp[k][m]==tw) { twx=k; twy=m; } } } if(twx==onx) { encryption[j]=pp[onx][(ony+1)%5]; j++; encryption[j]=pp[twx][(twy+1)%5]; j++; } else if(twy==ony) { encryption[j]=pp[(onx+1)%5][ony]; j++; encryption[j]=pp[(twx+1)%5][twy]; j++; } else { encryption[j]=pp[onx][twy]; j++; encryption[j]=pp[twx][ony]; j++; } } encryption[j]=NULL; // encryptioncrypted data1 printf(n t encryptioncryted data1 is: ); puts(encryption); // decryptioncrypting the givencryption encryptioncrypted data1 i=0;j=0; while(encryption[i]!=NULL) { on=encryption[i]; i++; tw=encryption[i]; i++; for(k=0;k { for(m=0;m { if(pp[k][m]==on) { onx=k; ony=m; } if(pp[k][m]==tw) { twx=k; twy=m; } } } if(twx==onx) { ony=ony-1; twy=twy-1; if(ony==-1) { ony=4; } if(twy==-1) { twy=4; } decryption[j]=pp[onx][ony]; j++; decryption[j]=pp[twx][twy]; j++; } else if(twy==ony) { onx=onx-1; twx=twx-1; if(onx==-1) { onx=4; } if(twx==-1) { twx=4; } decryption[j]=pp[onx][ony]; j++; decryption[j]=pp[twx][twy]; j++; } else { decryption[j]=pp[onx][twy]; j++; decryption[j]=pp[twx][ony]; j++; } } } decryption[j]=NULL; // decryptioncrypted data1 printf(n t decryptionncryptioncryted data1 is: ); puts(decryption); getch(); } Q6. Given the speed of a current ordinary computer (for home or light office use), estimate the amount of time necessary to crack a DES encryption by testing all 256 possible keys. Make a similar estimate for a 128-bit AES key. Ans :- We assume that the household computer has a 2GHZ processor. Also we assume that a machine takes a hundred cycles per brute force against a single 56-bit DES key or 128 bit AES key. To crack a DES encryption, we need: (2^56 key)*100 cycles/60sec/60min/24hour/365days/2000000000hz = 114.246566  years To crack a AES encryption, we need: (2^128 key)*100 cycles/60sec/60min/24hour/365days/2000000000hz = 5.39514154 ÃÆ'- 1023 years

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

The Road Not Taken And Stopping By Woods On A Snowy Evening - Analysis

Robert Lee Frost (born in San Francisco, March 26, 1874 and died in Boston, January 29, 1963) was one of America's leading 20th-century poets and a four-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize. Although his verse forms are traditional, he was a pioneer in the interplay of rhythm and meter and in the poetic use of the vocabulary and inflections of everyday speech. His poetry is thus both traditional and experimental. After Frost’s father died in 1885, the family left California and settled in Massachusetts. From 1897 to 1899 he attended Harvard College as a special student, but left without a degree. Over the next ten years he wrote (but rarely published) poems, operated a farm in Derry, New Hampshire (purchased for him by his grandfather), and supplemented his income by teaching. In 1912 he sold the farm and used the proceeds to take his family to England, where he could devote himself entirely to writing. His efforts to establish himself and his work were almost immediately successful. A Boy's Will was accepted by a London publisher and brought out in 1913, followed a year later by North of Boston. In 1924 he received a Pulitzer Prize in poetry for New Hampshire (1923). He received it again for Collected Poems (1930), A Further Range (1936), and A Witness Tree (1942). Over the years he received an unprecedented number and range of literary, academic, and public honors. 1 The Road Not Taken Although I must admit that I am not a poetry fan, many of the poems of Robert Frost appeal to me, and this would have to be the one that appeals the most, in other words, it is my favorite poem. When I first read this poem, I liked it because of its free verse style (which I like) and its apparent simplicity, but, after much study, its true meaning became apparent. The obvious basic meaning is that the poem is about a person’s choices in life. The narrator describes coming to a problem with the fork in the road. He must go down one but feels he will not be able to take back his decision. He looks to see the pros and cons of each choice, and then takes the one that he says the least had traveled. He leaves the outcome up to the reader and the sigh at the end can be taken as good or bad. This leaves the reader the choice of deciding whether it is better to conform with society or rebel like Frost did and take up a less stable trade. However, there are many places to which... ..., he is far away from the city, and the city is like a synonym for life – and one of the opposites of life is death. Another closely related example of symbolism is â€Å"Between the woods and the frozen lake†. The woods are now a symbol of life – a change from the previous example – and the frozen lake, devoid of life, is a symbol of death. The final example of symbolism is an obvious one in which death is compared to sleep. Frost’s â€Å"difference† (The Road not Taken ln20) was always in him. This can be seen long before he starts his actual writing career. While he learned to read at a very late age of 14, he had already sold a poem at the age of 15. The road that Frost took was not only the â€Å"different† road and the right road for him, but also the only road that he could possibly have taken. The Road Not Taken and the often-studied Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening â€Å"exemplify Frost's ability to join the pastoral and philosophical modes in lyrics of unforgettable beauty†1. Frost's poetic and political conservatism caused him to lose favor with some literary critics, but his reputation as a major poet is secure. He unquestionably succeeded in realizing his life's ambition: to write.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Coca Cola Essay

Organizations need to change and adopt dynamic survival strategies to stay alive in uncertain political, social and economic environment (Hiatt and Creasy, 2003). All environmental factors present in the nature experience change on continuous basis. Human nature resists change, so managing that resistance requires well planned change management strategies. A structured approach to transfer organization, its people and processes from current state to a desired future state is called change management. This process gives employees the ability to accept changes in the existing environment of the business. Change can be of different type for example, change in technology, operations or strategies etc. company needs to implement individual strategies to cope with each type of change. Coca Cola Corporation is among one of the oldest corporations of the world. It has gone through many internal and external changes since it has been in existence. The company has used techniques of change management in order to survive from the consequences of those events. Coca Cola is a type of company that requires making changes in its products and business strategies according to the consumer expectations and external environment. Here in this study we would quote different examples from coca cola corporation’s history and will examine that what were the triggering events for opting the change and what strategies the company developed and implemented in order to successfully going through the transitioning process. Coca Cola is a type of company that requires making changes in its products and business strategies according to the consumer expectations and external environment. Here in this study we would quote different examples from coca cola corporation’s history and will examine that what were the triggering events for opting the change and what strategies the company developed and implemented in order to successfully going through the transitioning process. It is a well known fact that Coca Cola Corporation is an entrepreneurial venture started by one person who bought the formula from another firm and laid foundations of that beverages manufacturing firm. Current structure of the coca cola company is simple with minimal labor and management division. New system that can be adopted by the company may be the â€Å"machine bureaucracy† which has been defined as an organization with clearly defined hierarchy, well defined area of operations, standard operating procedures, proper rules and regulations, well division of labor, formal relationships among the member of organization, centralized decision making, technical competence and standardization of work. The company has faced a lot of external changes, for example in world war II, the company was able to manage its existing position at that time and also entered in many new markets and discovered new niches. The company established 64 plants across the world to supply drinks to the troops (Coca Cola Company, 2006-2011). The company also provided free drinks to soldiers which were the part of its strategy to become a patriotic symbol for the people of the country. Also it boosted the sales, so the company achieved two objectives by carefully planning to respond to that external environmental change. The plants developed by the company in war era helped its expansion after the war. The recent change management at coca cola is directed towards the intrinsic values and motivations of the employees and can be referred to as ‘employee engagement’. The change management process, together with internal branding programs is expected to bring about ideal behaviors in employees, which would align the operations of coca cola worldwide, and bring about efficiency throughout coca cola across all its business segments. Coca Cola Company can use two change management tools to make sure that all people who are required to be the part of change management process. These tools are Force Field analysis and AKADAR model. Force field analysis is a technique developed by Kurt Lewin to scrutinize the forces that are causing an opposition to change process (Bass, 2009). By doing Force Field Analysis, Coca Cola Company will be able to induct people who are in need of appropriate training. Another useful tool is AKADAR model which stands for Awareness, Desire, Knowledge, Ability and Reinforcement. Through AKDAR model, firm creates awareness about the need of change, generate desire in the people to help in transitioning process, give knowledge to the people that how they can help the change process, develop an ability in the people to go through the change and provide them with continuous reinforcement to withstand the change (CMLR, 2011). Coca cola hopes to bring about a thoroughly integrated system of communications, and focus on creating brand relationships with their employees. This would enhance the operations of Coca cola, as an integrated approach would mean all employees believe in engaging fully in the values, and this would become an inherent part of the employees at a personal level. For this purpose, employee engagement surveys are conducted twice every year for all the coca cola associates, which serve to highlight the areas where action is required, and further actions and implementations can henceforth be executed. Employee engagement is very significant to all segments of operations at coca-cola and has translated into performance in areas where employee engagement is higher. For coca-cola, an engaged workforce means: A more committed workforce Employee performance aligned with organizational objectives Employees have a clear idea of what is expected of them and what are the deliverables Customer experience focuses an inherent part of employees’ values, who strives to provide a better experience to the customers. Customer focus was identified as a central tenant of the multi-year engagement strategy to be implemented in 2011(Gee, 2011) Change in inevitable. Therefore, the focus should not be on avoiding change, rather bringing about a smooth transition towards the new change by communication about the change, and ensuring all parties of the change that it is for the best of all those involved. To successfully implement organizational change of any nature, a specific regards to organizational structure, design, culture, management and leadership is required to see whether the change would make a best fit with the organizational goals and objectives. To conclude, it may be said that communication can be a key element to successful change management. Communicate the changes to the employees, tell them why the change was inevitable and how they will benefit from the change. The management should itself adopt a positive attitude towards the change so that employees can follow their lead and welcome the change. Coca-cola as a company has a heritage of embracing change rather than resist it and it should translate into their future endeavors towards change management to ensure that the organization is best poised to market and environmental conditions.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Elements Of Its Marketing Mix Tourism Essay Example

Elements Of Its Marketing Mix Tourism Essay Example Elements Of Its Marketing Mix Tourism Essay Elements Of Its Marketing Mix Tourism Essay the park successfully maintains local clients trueness with changeless entrywaies. Hong Kong Disneyland has a competitory advertisement scheme to pull these mark clients. It placed intensive sum of advertizements postings in the train Stationss and major MTR Stationss that visitants and local targeted groups are exposed with new selling runs and promotional events from the company. In add-on, the company besides has developed discounted travel bundles with the taking air hoses in order to maximise attendings during loose seasons. 3.3 Positioning Hong Kong Disneyland is positioning household oriented entertaining subject park with spirit of household and merriment. Ocean Park, which is the major rival, otherwise places itself as edutainment of ocean and grownup adventuresome amusement. Therefore, there is no ferocious competition between these two subject Parkss in Hong Kong. 4. Pull offing Customers In the subject park industry, the subject park experience is the new step of success. With the addition in discretional income and going chances, visitants have become more demanding in their outlooks of subject park public presentation, which requires the subject parks non merely supplying great service but besides being able to arouse visitants positive emotional feelings. ( The subject park experience, Shuk-ting Doris, 2008 ) The subject park experience depends on service quality of its staffs and installations, every bit good as the visitants behaviours. Due to the big figure of visitants flood in during vacations, Hong Kong Disneyland received complains about the hapless service public presentation and improper behaviours of some visitants. The company has started new enlargement undertaking since 2007 to increase capacity to pull more adolescents and young-adults. The replete value of client service is to bring forth long term client relationship and create superior client values with satisfaction that the satisfied clients are more likely to go the loyal visitants. Principles of Selling: an Asiatic Perspective Philip Kotler, 2011 ) Hong Kong Disneyland has a major rival in the part, the Ocean Park. In order to derive more market portions, the company uses client relationship direction plans, such as one-year base on ballss, promoting regular visit footing, gives the visitants 5 % to 15 % price reduction when they shop or dine in the park or the resort hotels. As one of the most popular finishs in Hong Kong, Hong Kong Disneyland has become an icon in back uping Hong Kong s place as one of the universe s top metropoliss for leisure tourers and concern visitants. 5. SWOT ANALYSIS From the following SWOT analysis tabular array, HKDL takes many advantages and chances to spread out more market portion and growing. Strengths Failings Opportunities Menaces Good Location Strong Financial and Network Support by HK Govt Renowned Brand Image A ; Exclusive Brand Characters Comprehensive Staff Training Huge Loss in the past 5 old ages Small visitant capacity Theme Park Expansion More Mainland China Arrivals Multi-Cultural Celebrations Strong direct A ; indirect rivals Worsening birth rate in HK A ; China 5.1 Strengths Strong Financial and Network Support by HK Government Hong Kong Government has invested HKD 22.45 billion in HKDL, and provides the site near Hong Kong airdrome in Penny Bay for 50 old ages rental at sensible footings, and offered a railroad web by the Mass Transit Railway. By this favour, HKDL has less fiscal force per unit area so that it can concentrate on merchandise and service development. Good Location As mentioned, HKDL is located in Benny Bay which near to Hong Kong airdrome, it is convenience to tourers can get to HKDL within 15minutes. Renowned Brand Image A ; Exclusive Character From The Global Attractions Attendance Report 2011 conducted by TEA/AECOM 2011, Walt Disney attractive forces are the top of the top 10 subject park group worldwide [ 1 ] , The positive and cheerful trade name image of Disney addition legion household and kids fans. Comprehensive Staff Training Over 300,000 hours staff preparation maintains good service quality. [ 2 ] and guarantee to allow client hold a relaxing and gratifying experience in subject park. 5.2 Failings Huge Loss HKDL has a immense loss in the past five 5 old ages with over 200 million USD, a batch of remarks and intuition criticized from Hong Kong Government and media, HKDL faces a large challenges from outside, including how to increase attending rate instantly. Small Visitor Capacity HKDL is the smallest Disneyland in the universe, overcrowding job was occurred in Chinese Lunar New Year vacation in 2006, many visitants was refused to come in the subject park because of full capacity, even they present valid ticket. [ 3 ] True, little capacity affects the profitableness, and visitants can walk through the subject park at one time and diminish the chance of repetition coming. 5.3 Opportunities Theme Park Expansion 7 new themed countries will be opened in 2013, it is non merely mostly increase no of visitants, it besides makes merchandise variegation, it is effectual to spread out mark market. More Mainland China Arrivals Increasing single travels from Mainland China becomes the largest group of subject park attendings but local is diminishing from 40 % in 2008 to 31 % in 2011. [ 4 ] HKDL should develop more selling activities to spread out China market such as cross-over Chinese usage and tradition with Disney characters. Multi-Cultural Celebrations Hong Kong is a multi-cultural society and there are many different sorts of jubilations and festivals. HKDL can take this advantage to form several of jubilations, to pull more tourers and local. 5.4 Menaces Strong direct A ; indirect rivals A serious menace comes from its direct and indirect rivals: Ocean Park, Shanghai Disneyland and Singapore Universal Studios, and South Korea Universal Studios, which will be opened in 2014. Ocean Park was awarded to the top subject park by Applause Award 2012 late. [ 5 ] HKDL need focal point on variegation and maintain client trueness. Worsening population size in HK A ; China kid market Birth rate in HK A ; China are worsening in these 10 decennaries due to one kid policy, it is undoubtedly consequence the attractive force of HKDL, it should develop new mark market to immature grownup and adolescents, non merely pull the leg of amp ; household. [ 1 ] TEA/AECOM 2011. Theme Index: The Global Attractions Attendance Report.A AECOM. P11-12, 5 June 2012. [ 2 ] Administration s paper on update on Hong Kong Disneyland Legislative Council, HKSAR P1, 17 January 2012 [ 3 ] Disney Culture Shock .A The Standard. Hong Kong. 19 March 2007 [ 4 ] Administration s paper on update on Hong Kong Disneyland Legislative Council, HKSAR P1, 17 January 2012 [ 5 ] Ocean Park functionary imperativeness release, 20 November 2012 6. Selling Analysis Product life Cycle After first few old ages of debut of HKDL, the subject park now enters into a growing phase in merchandise life rhythm. This means the park is in a period of rapid market credence and increasing net income. HKDL should maximise market portion with the advantages of turning figure of visitants. By this, the park should use the distribution range and their publicities should aim a broader subdivision on clients. In BCG matrix, HKDL is in Question Mark phase ; it means high market growing but low market portion. From the above information, increasing attending rate from these 5 old ages indicate HKDL has high growing but low market portion, HKDL need invest much in merchandise and market development, to heighten profitableness and spread out the market portion. In order to step up to the phase of star ( market leader ) , HKDL adopts both merchandise development and market development schemes that it can be measured by the undermentioned execution of HKDL: Merchandise Development To turn market, HKDL concern to gaining control Mainland China clients, HKDL develops new merchandises to turn the market. HKDL is continuously built up new themed-areas ( merchandise ) to the market ; the aim is to capture more clients. To pull more Mainland China clients, HKDL is specially designed Chinese tradition and usage into Disneyland, and organized some particular jubilations such as Mickey Celebrates the twelvemonth of Ox , HKDL has launched some Disney Fai Chun, ruddy pockets and Disney sketch jerseies with Chinese features. Market Development At meanwhile, HKDL understands non merely aim household and childs, it tries to utilize bing merchandise to spread out new market such as immature grownup and adolescents. HKDL established many new exciting games to capture more new mark market. HKDL organized Disney s Haunted Halloween at dark in Halloween season ; it aims to capture immature grownup and adolescents merely. To prosecute new mark group, HKDL resort offers fairy narrative nuptialss services with Disney sketchs. 7. Selling Plan As mentioned in old subdivisions, HKDL s selling scheme is based on placement of household oriented amusement. The primary client mark is mainland China visitants who do non hold much subject park experience and the secondary client mark is local households with childs who can be regular visitants for household assemblage. The tabular array below shows the visitant distribution between 2008 to 2011 among different client groups: Beginning: Themed Entertainment Association ( TEA ) study 2011 From the above figures, the Local visitants remain the same degree of figure of attendings over last old ages. Therefore, HKDL should broaden their clients subdivision in concentrating the Local visitant, seeking to increase the figure of attendings in this group. In the followers, a selling program will be introduced in order to broaden the client group of HKDL. Target client HKDL should set more focal point on local visitant groups. There is greater chance for repeated bargain within this group. Most of visitants from China or other topographic points will see Hong Kong one time or even less a twelvemonth. HKDL could establish different publicities or present several client trueness plans for increasing the attending of local visitants. Product/Service Strategy New themed country, Mystic Point, will be opened in 2013. Together with Grizzly Gulch, which was opened in 2012, it is expected to convey new escapade experience to the immature visitants. Positioning The park should place itself as a top touristry finish for visitants to Hong Kong every bit good as an entertaining local subject park for local Hong Kong peoples. The park should market itself as an built-in portion of Hong Kong society to pull more local visitants. Promotion The park can present new publicities to make consciousness of local Hong Kong people for increasing re-visit rate. These include free tickets for birthday childs, a package of household tickets price reduction or household jazz band set repast in the eating house inside the subject park. Pricing Scheme The park manages its client with one-year base on ballss to raise client royalty. The park should offer price reduction of the one-year base on balls reclamation for the following twelvemonth. This can farther retain clients and increase the client trueness. Besides, the park should present pupil tickets that will besides increase the visitant rate of adolescents and households. Marketing Communication Strategy Sarah Fox, direct of marker, merchandise scheme for HKDL Resort, pointed out that the immature grownups are digesting media in assorted ways utilizing Facebook, the cyberspace and via their nomadic phones, which is why Disneyland has decided to tap on these channels to make out to them. Adaline Lau,, 06-Nov-2009. The conventional media channels become less effectual presents. The park should present its message via different new channels that is good adopted by the local Hong Kong people today. These include Facebook, Weixin and the Apps in smartphone. Social Responsibility To place the park as an built-in portion of Hong Kong Society, the Parkss should perpetrate its part to Hong Kong society by different outreach programmes. These include free park drives for selected underprivileged households, making environmental consciousness in Hong Kong and voluntary plants to the community. 8. LIMILATIONS A ; ETHICAL IMPLICATION Ethical Deduction The park continues to use its country and installations to pull more clients. The park enlargement may necessitate building or renewal plants that will damage the wildlife or doing pollutions in the country. Therefore, the company should do every attempt to conserve the environment when a building is required. The park could ask for environmental protection organisation, such as Greenpeace, to measure the impact to the environment foremost before they start the building. This could cut down the impact to the park. Restrictions In this study, the current selling scheme of HKDL is reviewed and a selling program is developed for the park. In this procedure, there are 2 chief restrictions deliberated. Competition environment It is assumed that HKDL competes straight to other subject Parkss merely. However, in existent state of affairs, there are indirect competitions between HKDL with different touristry musca volitanss like, Ngong Pinging 360, the Peak. Tourism industry The touristry industry affects profoundly in the concern of HKDL since over half of HKDL s visitants now are visitants to Hong Kong. The market size of the subject park industry varies to the touristry industry environment. In this study, it is assumed that the market size is fixed and no affected by the touristry nor economic environment of Hong Kong or in South East Asia Region. 9. Decision In decision, HKDL offers subject park A ; resort experience, It chiefly targets visitants from mainland China part and local households with childs. Although HKDL has a batch of advantages such as fiscal support from HKSAR authorities and renowned trade name image, nevertheless Its major rival in the part, Ocean Park did a good occupation and awarded to be the top one subject park. In anterior to serious menaces by rivals, HKDL follow merchandise development and market development scheme to spread out new market and enhance market portion, new themed country is opened to convey new escapade experience to the immature visitants. Besides, HKDL should establish different publicities or present several client trueness plans for increasing the attending of local visitants, for illustration, HKDL can utilize Facebook, Weixin and the Apps in smartphone to offer trueness plan and repetition sing inducements, to pull immature grownup and adolescents. REFERNECE A ; BIBLOGRAPHY [ HK Disneyland Annual game Review2011 ] [ hypertext transfer protocol: // ] [ hypertext transfer protocol: // name=HomePage ] [ hypertext transfer protocol: // ] [ HK Disneyland Annual game Review2011 ] [ hypertext transfer protocol: // name=HomePage ] Principles of Selling: an Asiatic Perspective Philip Kotler, 2011 TEA/AECOM 2011. Theme Index: The Global Attractions Attendance Report.A AECOM. P11-12, 5 June 2012. hypertext transfer protocol: // Apple Daily, 20 January 2010 A Disney Culture Shock .A The Standard. Hong Kong. 19 March 2007 Administration s paper on update on Hong Kong Disneyland Legislative Council, HKSAR P1, 17 January 2012 Ocean Park Hong Kong Recognized as World s Top Theme Park by Prestigious Applause Award A , Ocean Park functionary imperativeness release, 20 November 2012 HONG KONG DISNEYLAND ANNUAL BUSINESS REVIEW FOR THE FISCAL Year 2011 hypertext transfer protocol: //

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Lifestyles -- Compare And Cntrast Essays - Lifestyle, Personal Life

Lifestyles Compare And Cntrast Essays - Lifestyle, Personal Life Lifestyles Compare And Cntrast Outline Thesis Statement: There is always a tendency to compare our person lifestyle to that of many years ago. Introduction: Education In past, students face less pressure from teachers and parents. Today, students are much pressurized to perform I) Community Living in village In past, community living in village was more attractive and successful and standard of living was low. Today, people are suspicious of their neighbors and it is common to see closed doors in most high-rise flats. II) Advance Technology In past, there were no computers. Today, we have laptops or notebooks; we can carry it everywhere III) Telecommunications In past, we have to travel a lot from one place to another to convey a simple message Today, world is very small we can make calls wherever we like. Conclusion: Thus, lifestyle and society of today and that in the past have their own positive and negative issues. There is always a tendency to compare our person lifestyle to that of many years ago. To a certain extent, things were much better in earlier times. Firstly, in the aspect of education, students faced less pressure from teachers and parents. Expectations of these people were often realistic and achievable and this helped to be relaxed and cool as individuals. Today, students are much pressurized to perform well in school to meet to the expectations of their teacher and parents. This is reflected by the numerous tuition sessions and additional lessons they have to attend the more often than not, the academic aspect overrides the importance of social and emotional development. Secondly, community living in village was more attractive and successful in the past; people were drawn together naturally despite their religion or race. They were spontaneous in helping one another. Today, people are suspicious of their neighbors and it is common to see closed doors in most high-rise flats. There is no communications among neighbors in some cases. Thirdly, the purchasing power of a consumer is higher. In the past, standard of living was very low, where as, consumer goods were cheap. Today, a consumer needs to possess more money to purchase basic necessities of life. Of course, the present time has its appeal too. Firstly, with the impressive advance in technology, our life is made more comfortable. The computer system enables one to edit a complete work repeatedly and serves various functions as well. Information can be saved in files and easily retrieved if desired. Even the computers of today are more portable and compact in their designs. A laptop or notebook can be carried around easily. Secondly, the telecommunications services are so advanced that there is greater accessibility to make international calls whenever we like. There is no need to travel overseas to make personal visits when important messages need to be conveyed. Another important positive trail of todays society is the improvement in public transport. With the invention of MRTs, road reduction, noise and air pollution are reduced. With the present increasing focus on environment issues, this is an essential step taken by us. Thus, the lifestyle and society of today and that in the past have their own positive and negative issues. It is important for one to remain objective to see and appreciate the strengths of both times.

Monday, November 4, 2019

Industry Analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 4

Industry Analysis - Essay Example The fundamental ruleof the industry is based on sharing the risk than the transfer of the same (Hassan & Lewis,  2007). The banks in the industry act as the financial intermediary that is investment banking hence transacting mortgages. In mortgage transactions, the banks purchase the items from the sellers and re-sell them in the market at a profit instead of lending the money to the buyer to make purchases. It is a fallacy to purport that when an industry performs nicely in one period continues at the same pace in future. It is uncertain because the business world very competitive. Each industry tries to gain a competitive position by producing high-quality products and services and tailoring them to their customers (Agawam, 2010). This is done courtesy of customer loyalty. Additionally, industries strive to effectively and sufficiently utilize the resources available to generate revenue and consequently profits. For an industry to have a stay in the industry, it must be in a position to generate high profits to cater for the payment of shareholders through dividends and payment of other stakeholders like employees, the government, suppliers and creditors. The business environment is dynamic and the following are the factors that can cause the industry not to perform well in future. Firstly, it can be observed by financial analysts that the costs of providing the products and services vary from one fiscal year to another. Holding other items of the income statement constant, an increase in such costs will lead to a decline the profits of the industry. The industry can, therefore, be forced to borrow funds externally to finance its business, and this increases the financial risk to the industry. The industry has got a vast geographical area of operation and this call for theforeign exchange of currency for its transactions. Unfavorable movement in the exchange rates (increase in exchange rates) will adversely affect the operations

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Environmental effects of intensive dairy farming (esp impacts on Essay

Environmental effects of intensive dairy farming (esp impacts on water) in NZ - Essay Example I will then look into websites especially those ending in â€Å"nz† as they are all from New Zealand. I will then look more into these and by browsing through all of them, I can somehow get an idea about what to write regarding the environmental effects of intensive dairy farming. I am actually expecting that there will be a variety of topics to discuss but I was determined to focus on the negative or harmful effects of intensive dairy farming, especially on how it affects the waters and the water supply. However, aside from using those websites which end in â€Å"nz,† I will also try exploring all those with â€Å"edu† or â€Å"org† or even those whose endings are â€Å"com† and â€Å"net† as long as they particularly refer to the environmental effects of intensive dairy farming. Moreover, I also have to search Google Scholar for any possible journal articles related to New Zealand and the intensive dairy farming problem there. I will be using the keywords â€Å"New Zealand† and â€Å"intensive dairy farming,† and I will then make my search primarily on the aspect of the problem that deals with water and at the same time not leaving the other parts. For the journal articles, I should take care not to consider those published before 2000 as they could actually be too obsolete already. Moreover, it would be better for me to choose journal articles that have been published in New Zealand compared to those that have been published in other countries as the former are more related to the environmental issue that I want to investigate. Aside from Google Scholar, I will also try out other databases. Moreover, I will select only those journal articles that have a complete or full report, whether in doc, html or pdf format. I will not select those with only an abstract because those will never explain the reasons behind the findings. Furthermore, I will not

Thursday, October 31, 2019

Critically assess what reprehensible behaviour means in section 112 Essay

Critically assess what reprehensible behaviour means in section 112 Criminal Justice Act 2003 - Essay Example Prior to this law, the courts were following complex systems. The 2003 Act was aimed at supplanting these complex systems by establishing a new set of rules. Legislative reforms involve several lacunae, and the new Act is no exception2. It has been observed that the Criminal Justice Act 2003 lacks certainty in various aspects. The chief drawback with this statute is the obscurity that plagues several of its more important principles. This Act states that evidence of reprehensible behaviour is bad character evidence, in the context of criminal proceedings. This definition has been criticised by several legal commentators, who contend that this definition is obscure and uncertain3. The UK’s Parliament had initiated some changes to its criminal justice system. As part of this initiative, it enacted the Criminal Justice Act 2003. This Act was aimed at completely changing the systems established, in respect of criminal convictions4. It made vast and far reaching changes to the admissibility of prior convictions and bad behaviour, as evidence in criminal trials. Before the enactment of the Act, the Courts were reluctant to admit evidence of a defendant’s previous convictions and reprehensible behaviour. This was beneficial to the criminal, whilst being prejudicial to the interests of the victim5. Consequently, Parliament made this legislation, in order to restore justice to the victims, while ensuring fair treatment of defendants. This shift in policy had generated new problems, and there has been widespread criticism against the Act, by many legal scholars. They have contended that this Act reflected the intention of the government to systematically destroy the justice system in the country, in a step by step manner. These debates raise a number of questions, regarding the viability of this new Act, and whether it aims to drastically change the justice system6. Considerable apprehension has also been expressed, as to whether the Act

Monday, October 28, 2019

The Corporate Culture Essay Example for Free

The Corporate Culture Essay A six-year legal battle involving the jailed father-son duo who headed now-defunct Adelphia Communications has ended after prosecutors withdrew tax fraud charges related to their earlier conviction in a $1. 9 billion fraud case. Prosecutors said they withdrew the tax-related charges Wednesday against the Pennsylvania cable companys founder John Rigas and his son Timothy because they werent likely to end in substantial additional jail time or restitution. Proceeding with the case wouldnt be a prudent expenditure of prosecutorial resources, authorities said. Authorities alleged in 2005 the Rigases had committed tax fraud when they failed to pay income tax on the proceeds of the fraud they were convicted of in New York a year earlier. The former executives fought the case on the grounds it amounted to double jeopardy. Both men are already in jail stemming from the collapse of the company in 2002 after prosecutors said John Rigas, 87, and Timothy Rigas, 55, failed to report nearly $2 billion in liabilities. John Rigas has seven years left on his 12-year sentence, while Timothy Rigas isnt expected to be released until 2022. Meanwhile, prosecutors said the family spent lavishly on itself, ordering 100 pairs of slippers for Timothy Rigas and spending more than $3 million to produce a film by John Rigas daughter. Defense attorney Larry McMichael welcomed the end of the long court battle. This case never should have been brought, he told The Patriot-News of Harrisburg. The analysis should include the following: A short description of case identification of the ethical issues involved (what was the alleged ethical wrong done, and why is/was it wrong? A statement, in their own opinion, of whether it was wrong or not, and more importantly, why? Thoughts on what could have been done to avoid the problem – do we need more laws government regulation? What internal controls might have prevented this situation? Was the problem more a matter of individuals gone wrong, or was it more systemic and organizational? Provide 3-5 APA style references both inline and at the end of the paper to support your analysis. Please write in 3rd person. Note: This is your opportunity to demonstrate your knowledge of the week’s theory linked to personal opinion and outside evidence.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Psychological Theories Of Crime

Psychological Theories Of Crime Psychology and Crime Psychology of crime tries to give an explanation how some people deviate from the social norms and choose to commit crime. It is also a tool commonly used in the investigation process that helps investigators interview suspects effectively. Definitions of Crime A crime is generally considered as an act that is against what criminal law says. Crimes that are mala prohibita vary with time and place and are dependent relative to cultural context and values but crimes that are mala in se are universally forbidden. mala in se crimes include murder or theft. Consensus Theories This view regards all crimes to be intolerable to all society. Society as a whole agrees upon and formulates a written code which defines crimes and is a reflection of values, beliefs, and opinions of societys mainstream culture. There is a consensus between the majority in society as these agree on which behaviours should be criminalized or not. Sutherland and Cressey link crime with criminal law as according to them criminal behaviour is a violation that goes against mainstream beliefs. They also believe that the legal system deals with crime uniformly thus dealing with all kinds of different people in the same way. Social harm the consensus view distinguishes between illegal behaviours that cause social harm and those that do not. Deviant behaviour is against social norms but does not cause social harm. Deviant acts although deemed shocking or immoral are not necessarily criminal. However the consensus view still condemns victimless crimes even though they have wilful participants, they argue that this behaviour could undermine the social fabric and that all members of society must be protected even if they choose to engage in high-risk behaviours. On the other hand some other theorists of the Consensus View claim that deviance is in fact beneficial in society as it challenges old-fashioned ideas and brings about the needed change in society. Conflict Theories The Conflict Perspective believes that criminal law reflects and protects established economic, racial, gendered and political power. This perspective portrays society as a collection of different groups who are in constant conflict with each other as they are all the time struggling to achieve and maintain this power. Groups use the law in their favour to assert their political power. Therefore they consider criminal law as existing to protect those in power. According to this view the definition of crime is in the hands and monopolised in favour of those who have power. Crime is shaped by the ruling class instead of by societal consensus. Benign violent acts ensure tranquillity preventing the underclass from overthrowing their capitalist exploiters. Conflict theorists believe punishments are not given fairly and thus this theory holds that the system is shaped by the ruling class for the ruling class. For instance lower class people get harsher punishments for petty crimes than do white collar criminals. According to the conflict perspective, real crimes would include violations of human rights and inadequate childcare amongst others. Interactionist Theories According to the Interactionists, people act according to their interpretations of reality and assign meanings accordingly. They observe the way others react whether positively or negatively and then re-evaluate and interpret their own behaviour according to the meanings they have learned from others. Interactionists assert that people in power use their influence to impose their definition of right and wrong on others. To Interactionists crimes are outlawed behaviours because society has defined them that way. Criminal law is shaped by moral entrepreneurs who use their influence to shape the legal system the way they see it. Interactionists argue that crime has no meaning unless people react to it in a negative way. 2. Theories of Crime Classical Theories Basic elements of classical theories: In society people have free will to choose criminal or lawful solutions to meet their needs and settle their problems. Criminal solutions may be more attractive because they have a quicker and greater payoff. Persons choice of crime may be controlled by fear of punishment. The more severe, swift and certain the punishment is the better it is able to control criminal behaviour. The classical perspective influenced judicial philosophy; at the end of the 18th and 19th centuries, prisons started to appear as a form of punishment. Punishment by execution also began to be used for the most serious of offences. Let the punishment fit the crime is the key idea where punishment prevents persons from doing crime and from doing serious crime. Positivist Theories New discoveries in biology, astronomy and chemistry influenced social researchers to use the same scientific method to be applied to explain human behaviour. Human behaviour is a function of forces beyond the persons control. Behaviour is influenced by forces some of which are social, political, historical and biological. A persons biological makeup and structure also influence behaviour. The scientific method is used to solve social problems including human behaviour. Factual first hand information and observations are used. The work of Charles Darwin on the evolution of man encouraged further the development of science and that human activity could be verified by scientific principles. Physiognomists studied facial features of criminals to determine whether the shape of the nose, ears, eyes and the distance between them were associated with antisocial behaviour whilst Phrenologists studied the shape of the skull and bumps on the head and sought to determine whether these attributes were linked to criminal behaviour. Cesare Lambroso (1835-1909) studied physical characteristics of soldiers convicted and executed for criminal offences and believed that criminals are inherently born criminal as they inherit traits which subject them to criminality. These born criminals suffer from atavistic anomalies meaning that they are throwbacks to more primitive times with enormous jaws, strong canine teeth, sloping shoulders and foreheads, full lips and flat feet. These criminal traits can be acquired or inherited in 2 ways: Indirect heredity inherited from a degenerate family whose members suffered from ills such as insanity, syphilis and alcoholism. Direct heredity being related to a family of criminals. Radical Criminology Radical or Marxist criminology explains crime within economic and social contexts expressing the connection among social conflict, crime and social control. Theories within radical criminology argue that conflict promotes crime by creating a social atmosphere in which law is a form of social control controlling dissatisfied members of society, whilst the affluent maintain their power. Therefore criminal behaviour is a function of conflict and a reaction to the unfair distribution of wealth and power in society. Social conflict has its theoretical basis in the works of Karl Marx as interpreted by Bonger, Dahrendorf and Vold. Conflict theorists suggest that crime in any society is caused by class conflict and laws are created by those in power to protect their rights and interests. Radical criminology views the capitalist system as a major cause of crime; the poor commit crimes because of their frustration, anger and need. The wealthy engage in illegal acts because they are used to competition and to maintain their positions in society therefore the state serves the interests of the ruling capitalist class. Criminal law is an instrument of economic oppression re-enforcing the oppression of the subordinate classes. There are 2 main branches of radical criminology referred to as instrumental and structural theory. Instrumental theorists believe that the legal system supports the owners at the expense of the workers. Structural theorists on the other hand believe that the law controls the power of the capitalists. Labelling Theories Labelling theories are interested in the effects of labelling on individuals and ask why some people committing some actions come to be defined as deviant, while others do not. Once a group or individuals having a certain common characteristic are labelled to be deviant the more likely they are to be arrested for, charged with, and convicted of a particular crime. The label attached may become so dominant that it is often referred to as the master status which is seen as more important than all the other aspects of the person. He or she becomes a hooligan or thief rather than a father, mother or friend. Each label carries with it prejudices and images and this may lead to others interpreting the behaviour of the labelled person in a particular way. For example, a person who volunteers to stay late at work is usually seen as worthy of praise, but, if a person has been labelled as a thief, people might be suspicious that they will steal something. For some people once a deviant label has been applied this can actually lead to more deviance. This happens when people start acting in the way they have been labelled. The Labelling Theory argues that no act is intrinsically criminal as crime is defined in the interest of the people in power therefore it is the designation of criminality by authorities which makes an act unlawful and a person who commits it a criminal. Everyone is a conformist in some ways and a deviant in other ways and therefore dividing people into criminal and non-criminal categories does not make any sense. 1. Police hold stereotypes about typical criminals. 2. They use these stereotypes to interpret the behaviour of suspected deviants 3. The closer that a person comes to the stereotype held by the police the more likely they are to be arrested for, charged with, and convicted of the crime. Lemerts Theory of Secondary Deviance Lemert suggests that deviance doesnt just happen with a single instance of behaviour. He argues that there is first an act which may be mischievous that deviates from the normatively expected behaviour and which results in a reaction from society. The reaction often involves admonition not to deviate again, and perhaps punishment. Other acts, and reactions, continue to occur. Lemert wisely suggests that some instances of deviance in this pattern are probably simply clumsy and unintended. Punishment and admonition for those acts may very well provoke a sense of being treated unjustly. After a series of such interdependent interactions, eventually the person begins to employ his deviant behaviour or a role based upon it as a means of defence, attack, or adjustment to the admonitions and prohibitions that behaviour provokes and this is what Lemert calls secondary deviance. 3. Measurement of Crime Crime is a part of society therefore it is important for it to be measured. Through measuring crime we can see the amount of crime present and therefore test the effectiveness of preventative measures. Crime trends can be estimated and may be used as information for policy makers. Measurement of crime in USA In the United States of America crime is mainly measured by two ways; the National Crime Victimization Survey and the Uniform Crime Report. These two different measures are utilized to have a more accurate account of crime. The National Crime Victimization Survey began being used as it became apparent that not all crimes were reported to the police. A scientific survey would have to be conducted of the population in question to discover if they have been victims of crime and have not reported this to the police. The Uniform Crime Report (UCR) are the major crime reports that are reported to the police. These are then given to the F.B.I and they publish these reports. Measurement of crime in Britain In Britain the yearly British Crime Survey (BCS) and police records are both used to measure crime rates. Before 1982 only police records were used however it became evident that this was not enough. The BCS is analysed along with the police records to try and determine a precise analysis of the crime in England and Wales. The BCS is considered to be a dependable source of long term crime trends as it delves into detail about the victims experiences of the crimes along with the fear of crime in the particular areas. All this information is published in the annual report: Crime in England and Wales. Police Records Police records include all the reported crimes to the police which are in turn recorded in their database. These provide a valuable source of information for researchers, members of the press and even the police themselves. However these are still not a reliable source of the crime rates of a particular area as they only include crimes that police officers and victims actually do report. Not all reports are available to the public for a variety of reasons such as; to protect national security, to respect an ongoing investigation or even not to interfere with the prosecution or apprehension of criminal offenders. The Dark figure of crime A large percentage of crime committed remains unreported. This trend seems prevalent in many areas and this could be due to multiple reasons. One such reason could be that the person is unaware that they are a victim, such as in cases of fraud or even with drug dealers, where the buyer does not feel like the victim of a crime as he/she is also an active component of the crime. A victim may also feel embarrassed to report the crime which is often the case in sexual abuse and also in certain cases of physical abuse. The victim may decide to protect the offender which can be found in cases such as spousal abuse or it the victim knows the offender etc. It could also be that the victim is not in a position to protect themselves; such is the case with victims of a young age, old age, mentally challenged, physically challenged etc. The trivialisation of certain crimes, such as littering, and the lack of faith in the police and the judicial system, may also result in a deficiency of reports to the police. A victim may feel the wait for justice through the policing system may take too long and even decide to take hold of matters themselves inflicting payback on the offender themselves. This in turn, may be an act of crime in itself. People involved in criminal behaviour tend to take up this kind of activity where they are unlikely to make a report when they are in turn are made victims. The nature of a crime affects the likelihood of the crime being reported, if the crimes are of a serious nature or would entail police reports in order to make insurance claims. Police discretion may also influence the information represented on police records due to several factors such as; the type of policing which may affect crime patterns and rates. Police in different areas or with different methods may classify crime differently and also the fact that police stereotyping affects who the police search, arraign, arrest and investigate. During police campaigns that lead to arrests and convictions in regards to certain crimes, an increase in that particular crime would be recorded on the police records. However it is important to note that this may not be the case as the increase in the crime records may be a result of more arrests, not due to the increase of the crime itself. Several police forces do not report certain crimes as viewed as unimportant and are overlooked. Offender Surveys Offenders are also a component of crime researchers attempt to investigate. This is done through the use of Offender surveys where participants are asked if they have ever committed a crime. These are often criticised for being too subjective as they rely on the participants perception of what constitutes a crime. They seek to uncover the perpetrators of crime, particularly for crime that is not reported in order to identify the offenders experiences of crime. Victim Surveys Victim surveys help provide a better and more accurate picture of crime representation alongside official police statistics. Through sampling, a selection of individuals are chosen and asked whether they have been victims of crime and most importantly if they reported these crimes to enforcement agencies. National Crime Victimization Survey United States