Thursday, October 31, 2019
Critically assess what reprehensible behaviour means in section 112 Criminal Justice Act 2003 - Essay Example Prior to this law, the courts were following complex systems. The 2003 Act was aimed at supplanting these complex systems by establishing a new set of rules. Legislative reforms involve several lacunae, and the new Act is no exception2. It has been observed that the Criminal Justice Act 2003 lacks certainty in various aspects. The chief drawback with this statute is the obscurity that plagues several of its more important principles. This Act states that evidence of reprehensible behaviour is bad character evidence, in the context of criminal proceedings. This definition has been criticised by several legal commentators, who contend that this definition is obscure and uncertain3. The UKÃ¢â¬â¢s Parliament had initiated some changes to its criminal justice system. As part of this initiative, it enacted the Criminal Justice Act 2003. This Act was aimed at completely changing the systems established, in respect of criminal convictions4. It made vast and far reaching changes to the admissibility of prior convictions and bad behaviour, as evidence in criminal trials. Before the enactment of the Act, the Courts were reluctant to admit evidence of a defendantÃ¢â¬â¢s previous convictions and reprehensible behaviour. This was beneficial to the criminal, whilst being prejudicial to the interests of the victim5. Consequently, Parliament made this legislation, in order to restore justice to the victims, while ensuring fair treatment of defendants. This shift in policy had generated new problems, and there has been widespread criticism against the Act, by many legal scholars. They have contended that this Act reflected the intention of the government to systematically destroy the justice system in the country, in a step by step manner. These debates raise a number of questions, regarding the viability of this new Act, and whether it aims to drastically change the justice system6. Considerable apprehension has also been expressed, as to whether the Act
Monday, October 28, 2019
The Corporate Culture Essay A six-year legal battle involving the jailed father-son duo who headed now-defunct Adelphia Communications has ended after prosecutors withdrew tax fraud charges related to their earlier conviction in a $1. 9 billion fraud case. Prosecutors said they withdrew the tax-related charges Wednesday against the Pennsylvania cable companys founder John Rigas and his son Timothy because they werent likely to end in substantial additional jail time or restitution. Proceeding with the case wouldnt be a prudent expenditure of prosecutorial resources, authorities said. Authorities alleged in 2005 the Rigases had committed tax fraud when they failed to pay income tax on the proceeds of the fraud they were convicted of in New York a year earlier. The former executives fought the case on the grounds it amounted to double jeopardy. Both men are already in jail stemming from the collapse of the company in 2002 after prosecutors said John Rigas, 87, and Timothy Rigas, 55, failed to report nearly $2 billion in liabilities. John Rigas has seven years left on his 12-year sentence, while Timothy Rigas isnt expected to be released until 2022. Meanwhile, prosecutors said the family spent lavishly on itself, ordering 100 pairs of slippers for Timothy Rigas and spending more than $3 million to produce a film by John Rigas daughter. Defense attorney Larry McMichael welcomed the end of the long court battle. This case never should have been brought, he told The Patriot-News of Harrisburg. The analysis should include the following: A short description of case identification of the ethical issues involved (what was the alleged ethical wrong done, and why is/was it wrong? A statement, in their own opinion, of whether it was wrong or not, and more importantly, why? Thoughts on what could have been done to avoid the problem Ã¢â¬â do we need more laws government regulation? What internal controls might have prevented this situation? Was the problem more a matter of individuals gone wrong, or was it more systemic and organizational? Provide 3-5 APA style references both inline and at the end of the paper to support your analysis. Please write in 3rd person. Note: This is your opportunity to demonstrate your knowledge of the weekÃ¢â¬â¢s theory linked to personal opinion and outside evidence.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Psychological Theories Of Crime Psychology and Crime Psychology of crime tries to give an explanation how some people deviate from the social norms and choose to commit crime. It is also a tool commonly used in the investigation process that helps investigators interview suspects effectively. Definitions of Crime A crime is generally considered as an act that is against what criminal law says. Crimes that are mala prohibita vary with time and place and are dependent relative to cultural context and values but crimes that are mala in se are universally forbidden. mala in se crimes include murder or theft. Consensus Theories This view regards all crimes to be intolerable to all society. Society as a whole agrees upon and formulates a written code which defines crimes and is a reflection of values, beliefs, and opinions of societys mainstream culture. There is a consensus between the majority in society as these agree on which behaviours should be criminalized or not. Sutherland and Cressey link crime with criminal law as according to them criminal behaviour is a violation that goes against mainstream beliefs. They also believe that the legal system deals with crime uniformly thus dealing with all kinds of different people in the same way. Social harm the consensus view distinguishes between illegal behaviours that cause social harm and those that do not. Deviant behaviour is against social norms but does not cause social harm. Deviant acts although deemed shocking or immoral are not necessarily criminal. However the consensus view still condemns victimless crimes even though they have wilful participants, they argue that this behaviour could undermine the social fabric and that all members of society must be protected even if they choose to engage in high-risk behaviours. On the other hand some other theorists of the Consensus View claim that deviance is in fact beneficial in society as it challenges old-fashioned ideas and brings about the needed change in society. Conflict Theories The Conflict Perspective believes that criminal law reflects and protects established economic, racial, gendered and political power. This perspective portrays society as a collection of different groups who are in constant conflict with each other as they are all the time struggling to achieve and maintain this power. Groups use the law in their favour to assert their political power. Therefore they consider criminal law as existing to protect those in power. According to this view the definition of crime is in the hands and monopolised in favour of those who have power. Crime is shaped by the ruling class instead of by societal consensus. Benign violent acts ensure tranquillity preventing the underclass from overthrowing their capitalist exploiters. Conflict theorists believe punishments are not given fairly and thus this theory holds that the system is shaped by the ruling class for the ruling class. For instance lower class people get harsher punishments for petty crimes than do white collar criminals. According to the conflict perspective, real crimes would include violations of human rights and inadequate childcare amongst others. Interactionist Theories According to the Interactionists, people act according to their interpretations of reality and assign meanings accordingly. They observe the way others react whether positively or negatively and then re-evaluate and interpret their own behaviour according to the meanings they have learned from others. Interactionists assert that people in power use their influence to impose their definition of right and wrong on others. To Interactionists crimes are outlawed behaviours because society has defined them that way. Criminal law is shaped by moral entrepreneurs who use their influence to shape the legal system the way they see it. Interactionists argue that crime has no meaning unless people react to it in a negative way. 2. Theories of Crime Classical Theories Basic elements of classical theories: In society people have free will to choose criminal or lawful solutions to meet their needs and settle their problems. Criminal solutions may be more attractive because they have a quicker and greater payoff. Persons choice of crime may be controlled by fear of punishment. The more severe, swift and certain the punishment is the better it is able to control criminal behaviour. The classical perspective influenced judicial philosophy; at the end of the 18th and 19th centuries, prisons started to appear as a form of punishment. Punishment by execution also began to be used for the most serious of offences. Let the punishment fit the crime is the key idea where punishment prevents persons from doing crime and from doing serious crime. Positivist Theories New discoveries in biology, astronomy and chemistry influenced social researchers to use the same scientific method to be applied to explain human behaviour. Human behaviour is a function of forces beyond the persons control. Behaviour is influenced by forces some of which are social, political, historical and biological. A persons biological makeup and structure also influence behaviour. The scientific method is used to solve social problems including human behaviour. Factual first hand information and observations are used. The work of Charles Darwin on the evolution of man encouraged further the development of science and that human activity could be verified by scientific principles. Physiognomists studied facial features of criminals to determine whether the shape of the nose, ears, eyes and the distance between them were associated with antisocial behaviour whilst Phrenologists studied the shape of the skull and bumps on the head and sought to determine whether these attributes were linked to criminal behaviour. Cesare Lambroso (1835-1909) studied physical characteristics of soldiers convicted and executed for criminal offences and believed that criminals are inherently born criminal as they inherit traits which subject them to criminality. These born criminals suffer from atavistic anomalies meaning that they are throwbacks to more primitive times with enormous jaws, strong canine teeth, sloping shoulders and foreheads, full lips and flat feet. These criminal traits can be acquired or inherited in 2 ways: Indirect heredity inherited from a degenerate family whose members suffered from ills such as insanity, syphilis and alcoholism. Direct heredity being related to a family of criminals. Radical Criminology Radical or Marxist criminology explains crime within economic and social contexts expressing the connection among social conflict, crime and social control. Theories within radical criminology argue that conflict promotes crime by creating a social atmosphere in which law is a form of social control controlling dissatisfied members of society, whilst the affluent maintain their power. Therefore criminal behaviour is a function of conflict and a reaction to the unfair distribution of wealth and power in society. Social conflict has its theoretical basis in the works of Karl Marx as interpreted by Bonger, Dahrendorf and Vold. Conflict theorists suggest that crime in any society is caused by class conflict and laws are created by those in power to protect their rights and interests. Radical criminology views the capitalist system as a major cause of crime; the poor commit crimes because of their frustration, anger and need. The wealthy engage in illegal acts because they are used to competition and to maintain their positions in society therefore the state serves the interests of the ruling capitalist class. Criminal law is an instrument of economic oppression re-enforcing the oppression of the subordinate classes. There are 2 main branches of radical criminology referred to as instrumental and structural theory. Instrumental theorists believe that the legal system supports the owners at the expense of the workers. Structural theorists on the other hand believe that the law controls the power of the capitalists. Labelling Theories Labelling theories are interested in the effects of labelling on individuals and ask why some people committing some actions come to be defined as deviant, while others do not. Once a group or individuals having a certain common characteristic are labelled to be deviant the more likely they are to be arrested for, charged with, and convicted of a particular crime. The label attached may become so dominant that it is often referred to as the master status which is seen as more important than all the other aspects of the person. He or she becomes a hooligan or thief rather than a father, mother or friend. Each label carries with it prejudices and images and this may lead to others interpreting the behaviour of the labelled person in a particular way. For example, a person who volunteers to stay late at work is usually seen as worthy of praise, but, if a person has been labelled as a thief, people might be suspicious that they will steal something. For some people once a deviant label has been applied this can actually lead to more deviance. This happens when people start acting in the way they have been labelled. The Labelling Theory argues that no act is intrinsically criminal as crime is defined in the interest of the people in power therefore it is the designation of criminality by authorities which makes an act unlawful and a person who commits it a criminal. Everyone is a conformist in some ways and a deviant in other ways and therefore dividing people into criminal and non-criminal categories does not make any sense. 1. Police hold stereotypes about typical criminals. 2. They use these stereotypes to interpret the behaviour of suspected deviants 3. The closer that a person comes to the stereotype held by the police the more likely they are to be arrested for, charged with, and convicted of the crime. Lemerts Theory of Secondary Deviance Lemert suggests that deviance doesnt just happen with a single instance of behaviour. He argues that there is first an act which may be mischievous that deviates from the normatively expected behaviour and which results in a reaction from society. The reaction often involves admonition not to deviate again, and perhaps punishment. Other acts, and reactions, continue to occur. Lemert wisely suggests that some instances of deviance in this pattern are probably simply clumsy and unintended. Punishment and admonition for those acts may very well provoke a sense of being treated unjustly. After a series of such interdependent interactions, eventually the person begins to employ his deviant behaviour or a role based upon it as a means of defence, attack, or adjustment to the admonitions and prohibitions that behaviour provokes and this is what Lemert calls secondary deviance. 3. Measurement of Crime Crime is a part of society therefore it is important for it to be measured. Through measuring crime we can see the amount of crime present and therefore test the effectiveness of preventative measures. Crime trends can be estimated and may be used as information for policy makers. Measurement of crime in USA In the United States of America crime is mainly measured by two ways; the National Crime Victimization Survey and the Uniform Crime Report. These two different measures are utilized to have a more accurate account of crime. The National Crime Victimization Survey began being used as it became apparent that not all crimes were reported to the police. A scientific survey would have to be conducted of the population in question to discover if they have been victims of crime and have not reported this to the police. The Uniform Crime Report (UCR) are the major crime reports that are reported to the police. These are then given to the F.B.I and they publish these reports. Measurement of crime in Britain In Britain the yearly British Crime Survey (BCS) and police records are both used to measure crime rates. Before 1982 only police records were used however it became evident that this was not enough. The BCS is analysed along with the police records to try and determine a precise analysis of the crime in England and Wales. The BCS is considered to be a dependable source of long term crime trends as it delves into detail about the victims experiences of the crimes along with the fear of crime in the particular areas. All this information is published in the annual report: Crime in England and Wales. Police Records Police records include all the reported crimes to the police which are in turn recorded in their database. These provide a valuable source of information for researchers, members of the press and even the police themselves. However these are still not a reliable source of the crime rates of a particular area as they only include crimes that police officers and victims actually do report. Not all reports are available to the public for a variety of reasons such as; to protect national security, to respect an ongoing investigation or even not to interfere with the prosecution or apprehension of criminal offenders. The Dark figure of crime A large percentage of crime committed remains unreported. This trend seems prevalent in many areas and this could be due to multiple reasons. One such reason could be that the person is unaware that they are a victim, such as in cases of fraud or even with drug dealers, where the buyer does not feel like the victim of a crime as he/she is also an active component of the crime. A victim may also feel embarrassed to report the crime which is often the case in sexual abuse and also in certain cases of physical abuse. The victim may decide to protect the offender which can be found in cases such as spousal abuse or it the victim knows the offender etc. It could also be that the victim is not in a position to protect themselves; such is the case with victims of a young age, old age, mentally challenged, physically challenged etc. The trivialisation of certain crimes, such as littering, and the lack of faith in the police and the judicial system, may also result in a deficiency of reports to the police. A victim may feel the wait for justice through the policing system may take too long and even decide to take hold of matters themselves inflicting payback on the offender themselves. This in turn, may be an act of crime in itself. People involved in criminal behaviour tend to take up this kind of activity where they are unlikely to make a report when they are in turn are made victims. The nature of a crime affects the likelihood of the crime being reported, if the crimes are of a serious nature or would entail police reports in order to make insurance claims. Police discretion may also influence the information represented on police records due to several factors such as; the type of policing which may affect crime patterns and rates. Police in different areas or with different methods may classify crime differently and also the fact that police stereotyping affects who the police search, arraign, arrest and investigate. During police campaigns that lead to arrests and convictions in regards to certain crimes, an increase in that particular crime would be recorded on the police records. However it is important to note that this may not be the case as the increase in the crime records may be a result of more arrests, not due to the increase of the crime itself. Several police forces do not report certain crimes as viewed as unimportant and are overlooked. Offender Surveys Offenders are also a component of crime researchers attempt to investigate. This is done through the use of Offender surveys where participants are asked if they have ever committed a crime. These are often criticised for being too subjective as they rely on the participants perception of what constitutes a crime. They seek to uncover the perpetrators of crime, particularly for crime that is not reported in order to identify the offenders experiences of crime. Victim Surveys Victim surveys help provide a better and more accurate picture of crime representation alongside official police statistics. Through sampling, a selection of individuals are chosen and asked whether they have been victims of crime and most importantly if they reported these crimes to enforcement agencies. National Crime Victimization Survey United States
Thursday, October 24, 2019
The Coast Guard (CG) is the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s smallest armed service and most misunderstood armed service. Most Americans know the Coast Guard is the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s premiere lifesaving service. Some may even know that the Coast Guard is the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s oldest continuing sea going service. While the Coast Guard falls under the UCMJ just like the other four branches, and often works side by side with them especially the Navy; The Coast Guard is usually trained for a very different mission than their DOD counterparts in times of peace. This paper will shed light on the Coast GuardÃ¢â¬â¢s accomplishments and its sacrifices in its National Defense mission. The legal basis for the Coast Guard to operate as a military force is Title 14 of the United States Code, which states: "The Coast Guard as established January 28, 1915, shall be a military service and a branch of the armed forces of the United States at all times." Upon the declaration of war or when the President directs, the Coast Guard operates under the authority of the Department of the Navy.Ã¢â¬ The Coast Guard can trace its beginnings back August 4th 1790. On this date president George Washington, at the urging of Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, ordered the building of ten ships. Those ten ships would be called the Revenue Cutter Service (RCS). The purpose of these ships was to enforce tariff regulations and bolster the coffers of the newly formed United States. It is the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s oldest continuing sea going service. These ships would be used to Ã¢â¬Å"cut offÃ¢â¬ smuggling in and out of the U.S. The term Ã¢â¬Å"cutterÃ¢â¬ is still used tod ay to describe any Coast Guard vessel 65Ã¢â¬â¢ or longer. The RCS was first pressed into service during the undeclared Quasi War with France in 1798-99. In 17... ...less and when it is called upon to fight it will transform from a law enforcement and humanitarian service to a fighting force to be reckoned with. Works Cited Cutler, Thomas J. Brown water, black berets: Coastal and riverine warfare in Vietnam. Naval Institute Press, 2000 Demographics of Active Duty U.S. Military http://www.statisticbrain.com/demographics-of-active-duty-u-s- military Kroll, C. Douglas. A Coast GuardsmanÃ¢â¬â¢s History of the U.S. Coast Guard. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press 2010 Lagan, Christopher http://coastguard.dodlive.mil/2010/06/remembering-uscgc-escanaba-wpg-77/ Puller, Lewis B. Fortunate Son: The Autobiography of Lewis B. Puller, Jr. Grove Press, 2000 U.S. Army Center of Military History http://www.history.army.mil/moh/wwII-m-s.html#MUNRO U.S. Coast GuardÃ¢â¬â¢s HistorianÃ¢â¬â¢s Office http://www.uscg.mil/history
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Cultural diversity is a big part of the community I was raised in and apart of today. Many people spend their whole lives surrounded by one race or culture, but I grew up surrounded by many. Having been raised in a society influenced and shared by so many different races, I had very little idea about what or why racism existed in the world. Having never been taught and seeing very little racism growing up I believed benefited me, today and benefited my future. Today being in the Marine Corps I am surrounded by different races and knowing one day my life could rest in their hands I respect them for who they are not what color they are. Martin Luther King once said Ã¢â¬Å"Men hate each other because they fear each other, and they fear each other because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know each other, and they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know each other because they are often separated from each other.Ã¢â¬ If the rest of the country had been raised in a military lifestyle then I believe racism would be all but extinct in the United States. Sadly racism is not only intertwined with the United States past but also with its present and its future. Racism has been part of the history of the United States, and helped create this country as we know it today. Racism not helped shaped the United States and infiltrated every aspect of American society while showing no signs of decreasing. Many people view racism as an evil minded treatment of one individual to another. This is not a correct assessment though, and would be more easily understood if it was viewed more accurately, an institutional ideology. The reason racism is allowed to subsist because governments and institutions foster and maintain racism. Even when these governments and institutions determine that the practices of a particular group of people are racist, individuals at the top of these hierarchical organizations are hard pressed to bring about change. To understand how racism relates to us in the United States today, one must understand the real definition of racism. Ã¢â¬Å"Racism is the belief that one group of people with a particular biological make up is superior to other groups with a differing biological make up.Ã¢â¬ So one could infer that the groups deemed superior gain economic and social dominance over the other cultural groups that are deemed inferior, even with the many strides that have been made over decades to mend the situation. An excellent example of a country that has made those strides and still lack racial reconciliation is the United States. From the bus boycotts in the fifties, to the sit-ins and marches in the sixties one could assume that these would be the starting steps to improvement. While the United States was mending the hatred and racism between black and whites another type of racism was creeping its way into American society. Today racism has taken a new face, one that has become multi-coloured and multicultural. To be able for the United States to keep a culturally diverse appeal new legislation and laws are being written against discrimination. Affirmative action has been taken to allow equal opportunity for employment, housing, and even in the military. Television and movies have had to change their format and even some of their characters in order to obtain political correctness. Even with so many fighting for change, there will always be the ancient invisible barriers blocking the few who are looking to main the status quo. Even with so many people trying to seek improvement for this country, it cannot happen unless every individual is working to abolish racism. There is racism in every facet of life no matter who someone hangs out with, or who someone even works for. Being in the Marine Corps I see different races every day, and work with different races every day. Mission accomplishment is the number one goal of the Marine Corps, so when a job needs to get done every one does their part of their job and race is not an issue. That is the way my career has gone so far, so when I read an article about racism in the Marine Corps it shocks me. New websites and social networking sites are being created all the time. A new social network website was created with the logo Ã¢â¬Å"online community for whites by whitesÃ¢â¬ , so it was a social website for only white people. Out of the many number of people who have made a profile there have been about forty personal profile that have listed the military as their occupation. Out of those forty a number of them are wearing their military uniforms in their profile pictures. Even more disturbing a number of the military members have poster racial slurs and racial propaganda. One member states that he Ã¢â¬Å"hate(s) illegal immigrants with a passion and feel(s) every true red-blooded, white American should do whatever it takes to stop the foreign invasion.Ã¢â¬ While another lists The Turner Diaries, which is a white supremacist novel, as his favourite book. It is important for members of the armed forces to not participate in these types of websites or groups. The first reason not to participate in these organizations is the Pentagon has regulations in affect that prohibit active duty members form participating in extremist groups. The second reason is those racial extremists who serve in the military could be inadvertently training future domestic terrorists, and the United States does not need any more terrorist on her soil. A solution for this problem would be senior military members mentoring their junior service members on the dangers of becoming involved in these organizations. Being in the United States Marine Corp I have many close friends that are from different countries in the world. One of my close friends is from the Philippines, and has a very strong accent when he speaks. Sometimes he gets his words confused and does not make any since when he speaks. Marines tend to point out these faults, not just with him, but with many other Marines that are from different countries and have trouble speaking English. My friend does not believe that his fellow Marines are being racist, but are just having a friendly poke at him. Marines do not mess with only a few Marines, or the Marines from other countries, but every Marine. It is not because we are racist, or are a mean group of people, but picking and jibing on one another is just the way that Marines bond with each other. When my friend says that he is getting picked on, yes it sometimes hurts, but in the end it makes him feel like he is part of the family. If Marines are not being picked on they are usually secluded and out of the Marine Corps family. Racism is wrong and should not be used for any reason, even to bring people together. Racism may start with a good reason, but the final product will fester into an infection that could spread and destroy a family within a short time. Racism is in this world to stay whether people like it or not. Individuals believe that if they spread the word about the dangers and negatives of racism then it will cease to exist, but that is not the truth and will never happen. As long as we humans exist and have emotions, the knowledge of right and wrong, and pride there will be crimes. Whenever a person graduateÃ¢â¬â¢s high school as valedictorian or an athlete becomes the fastest man on the planet, stereotypes will follow. Crimes, education, athleticism all turn into a stereotype and stereotypes are a form of racism. Racism is one of the things that drive our great country, and create some of our countries greatest works. Racism is what helped form and mold this country into what it is today. Without racism then this country could be one of a single culture, there would be no freedom to branch out and try new diverse things. The dangers of bringing so many different cultures into one space are there, but I believe the good thing we bring to the table References Vardell, M. (1998). Cultural diversity. Retrieved from http://www.markvardell.com/quotes.htm. Associated press (2009). Congress asked to address racism in military. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/31854789/ns/us_news-military/t/congress-asked-address-racism-military/#.Tr3ZM4LSRkY AllAboutPopularIssues (2011). The History of racism. Retrieved from http://www.allaboutpopularissues.org/the-history-of-racism-faq.htm
Tuesday, October 22, 2019
Current Trends in the Global Hospitality Industry Generally, the hospitality industry consists of numerous fields, which most popular are restaurants, transportation and tourism. It is not a secret that the success of the hospitality industry depends on disposable income. Tourism services as well as leisure ones are considered to be the sectors the hospitality industry includes.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Current Trends in the Global Hospitality Industry specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The professionals from fast moving consumer good companies held the leading positions in the hospitality industry. The companies or the firms the professionals came from were famous for their innovations. That is why the companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ strategic shift towards franchise can be explained so easy. According to Michael Ottenbacher (2011, p. 1) Hospitality firms develop innovations with specific objectives and goals in mind and have several approaches to measure performance accord ingly. However, no research in hospitality innovation has addressed the question of whether hospitality firms should have different approaches depending on their objectives for the individual innovation projects. The topics of our investigation are considered to be the distinctive features of the hospitality industry and leisure one, the relevance of fast moving consumer good experience to the hospitality industry, the meaning of brand management in the hospitality industry and the required skills for the leading positions people are to hold. As far as the hospitality industry is considered to be people-orientated business, the experience in FMCG (fast moving consumer goods) companies seems to be quite important. On the other hand, taking into account the parallels between the hospitality industry and the FMCG companies, one may point out that it is a dynamic relationship which is recognized to be an important issue for both sectors. There are also some contradictions concerning the importance of the experience in the terms of marketing. Thus, there is an opinion that understanding of different cultures and the work of various international organizations seems to be much more important than branding experience.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More From the outside the hospitality industry as well as leisure one seems to be a global; however, one is to take into account that there are numerous aspects which influence the industry fragmentation, i.e. various ownership structures as well as the real estate dimension. The hospitality industry which includes hotels can operate with management structure which includes numerous constituents. Thus, a General Manager, middle managers and administration are the most important parts of a hotel management. The innovations they follow are numerous hospitality management studies or various certification program s which impact on the popularity of a hotel. Moreover, there are various innovations which impact on the types of a hotel. Thus, the most widespread hotel types include: upscale luxury, full service, select service, limited service, extended stay, timeshare and destination clubs. According to Flora Gailliard (2011, p.1), Ã¢â¬ËHospitality management involves the planning, organizing, directing and controlling of human and material resources within the lodging, restaurant, travel and tourism, institutional management, recreational management and meeting and convention planning industries.Ã¢â¬â¢ While discussing the innovations of the hospitality industry, one is to take into account that the hospitality sector is considered to be much more conservative than the sector of FMCG. Consumer insight, innovation and marketing are all considered to be the burning issues. Thus, according to Spencer Stuart (2006, p.4), Ã¢â¬Ëa lack of strategic thinking about consumer expectations and beha viors is considered to be one of the biggest gaps.Ã¢â¬â¢ Using consumer data is recognized to be another step to understand the needs/requirements of the client.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Current Trends in the Global Hospitality Industry specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Developing talent inside is considered to be one more important innovation of the hospitality industry. It is said that the hospitality industry could know more about personsÃ¢â¬â¢ development from FMCG studies/investigations. Glenn Withiam (2011, p.1) is of the opinion that One issue for the industry to resolve is its relationship with third-party websites, or online travel agents (OTAs). The OTAs have been instrumental in helping hotels sell distressed inventory, but at the same time, price transparency has presented a challenge for hotels that wish to restore prices to pre-recession levels. References Gailliard, F., 2011. Ã¢â¬ËThe Hosp itality IndustryÃ¢â¬â¢,The Black Collegian Onine Web. Ottenbacher, M., 2011. Ã¢â¬ËInnovation Management in the Hospitality Industry: Different Strategies for Achieving SuccessÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Hospitality and TourismÃ Research Web. Stuart, S., 2006. Ã¢â¬ËInnovation and Brand Management in the Hospitality and Leisure IndustryÃ¢â¬â¢ Web. Withiam, G., 2011. Ã¢â¬ËCautious Optimism: CHRS Examines Hospitality IndustryÃ TrendsÃ¢â¬â¢, Cornell University School of Hotel Administration Web.